Information for Healthcare Professionals and Laboratories
No Time to Read?
CDC estimates that approximately 1.2 million illnesses and 450 deaths occur due to non-typhoidal Salmonella annually in the United States1.
FoodNet reports that the annual incidence of Salmonella infection in the United States was 15.2 illnesses per 100,000 individuals2.
Compared to 2010-2012, the incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection showed a 9% decrease in 20132. Visit the FoodNet website for more detailed information about the most recent trends in Salmonella infection.
- Salmonella infection is more common in the summer months (June, July, and August) than winter.
- Children under 5 years old are the most likely to get a Salmonella infection3.
- Infants who are not breast fed are more likely to get a Salmonella infection4.
- Children who are 5 years old and younger, adults over 65 years old, and people with weakened immune systems are the most likely to have severe infections.
- Certain medications (for example, medications to reduce stomach acid) can increase the risk of Salmonella infection5.
In 2012, 831 foodborne outbreaks were reported to CDC6. They were caused by a variety of pathogens, and 106 of them were confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella accounted for the most hospitalizations (64%) in outbreaks with a confirmed cause6. In the largest recent outbreak, between March 2013 and July 2014, over 600 individuals in 29 states and Puerto Rico were infected with seven outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg7. This outbreak was associated with one brand of chicken, that led to a company recall of over 40,000 pounds of chicken products8, and ended after the company instituted new control measures to reduce contamination.
Definition and Symptoms
Salmonella was discovered more than a century ago. Salmonellosis, the illness caused by Salmonella, primarily results in a mild to severe diarrheal illness, known as acute gastroenteritis.
Symptoms of acute gastroenteritis due to infection with Salmonella can include9:
Enteric: an infection of the gastrointestinal tract
Extra-intestinal: an infection occurring outside the intestine
Gastroenteritis: inflammation of the stomach and large and small intestines that may result in vomiting or diarrhea
Invasive infection: an infection of the bloodstream, bone, joint, brain, or nervous system
- Sudden onset of diarrhea (which may be bloody)
- Abdominal cramps
- Fever (almost always present)
- Nausea, vomiting, and headache may occur, though less frequent
Diarrhea may last for several days and lead to potentially severe dehydration, especially in infants and children under 2 years old and in adults over 65 years old. Even after clinical symptoms are no longer obvious, Salmonella bacteria may be found in the stool for several weeks.
Most people with diarrhea due to a Salmonella infection recover completely, although it may be several months before their bowel habits are entirely normal.
Sometimes, Salmonella infection can spread to urine, blood, bones, joints, the brain, or the nervous system, causing symptoms related to that body part or system. Some of these extra-intestinal infections can have long-term effects, depending on which part of the body is infected.
Invasive Salmonella Infections
When Salmonella infections become invasive, they can affect the bloodstream, bone, joint, brain, or nervous system, or other internal organs.
Invasive Salmonella infections:
- Can be severe and potentially life-threatening.
- Occur in about 8 percent of persons with laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infection.10
- May occur as:
- Bacteremia (infection of the blood)
- Meningitis (infection of the membranes lining the brain and spinal cord)
- Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone)
- Septic arthritis (infection of a joint).
- Are rarely fatal, but most commonly occur in people who are very young or old or have a weakened immune system.
Treatment & Outcomes
Podcasts from Consultant 360
How Can Salmonella Infections Be Treated?
Salmonella gastrointestinal infections usually resolve, or get better, in 5-7 days. Most do not require treatment other than oral fluids. People with severe diarrhea may require rehydration with intravenous fluids.
Should Salmonella Be Treated With Antibiotics?
Antibiotics are recommended only for patients who:
- Have a serious illness (such as severe diarrhea, high fever, bloodstream infection, or condition requiring hospitalization).
- Are considered at high risk for serious disease or complications (such as infants, adults over 65 years old, and people with weakened immune systems).
Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonellosis
CDC tracks Salmonella infections that are resistant to antibiotics through NARMS, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.
The germs that contaminate food can be resistant because of the use of antibiotics in people and in food animals. We can prevent many of these infections with careful antibiotic use and by keeping Salmonella out of the food we eat.
Some Salmonella bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. Sometimes the bacteria that cause infections are resistant to the drug of choice, and this drug doesn’t work. Physicians must then recommend second- or third-choice drugs for treatment, but these drugs might be less effective, more toxic, or more expensive. Choices for antibiotic therapy for severe infections often include fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, or ampicillin.
Resistance to antimicrobial agents is not uncommon in Salmonella. Data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) show that 5% of non-typhoidal Salmonella are resistant to five or more antimicrobial agents11.
Salmonella Genus and Species
Phenotype: an organism’s physical traits
Serotype: groups in a single species of microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, which share distinctive surface chemical structures
The genus Salmonella is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Like other Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonellae are Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacilli. The genus Salmonella can be divided into two species (S. enterica and S. bongori), based on their phenotypic profile. S. enterica can be further divided into six subspecies using their phenotypic profile.
The most common serotypes of Salmonella that cause human infection are Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, and Javiana. These Salmonella serotypes account for about half of culture-confirmed Salmonella isolates reported by public health laboratories12.
Typhoidal and Nontyphoidal Salmonella
Salmonella bacteria are classified as either “typhoidal” or “nontyphoidal,” based on their serotype.
- Typhoidal Salmonella refers to the specific Salmonella serotypes which cause typhoid fever or paratyphoid fever, including Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B (see note below), and Paratyphi C.
- Serotype Paratyphi B is tartrate-negative (unable to ferment tartrate) and causes typhoidal disease. Serotype Paratyphi B var. L(+)tartrate+ is tartrate-positive (able to ferment tartrate) and causes nontyphoidal disease.
- Nontyphoidal Salmonella refers to all other Salmonella serotypes13.
Sources of Infection
How do People Get Salmonella?
Salmonella live in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. You can get Salmonella infection from a variety of sources, including:
- Eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water.
- Touching infected animals and not washing your hands afterwards.
Contaminated Food or Water
Did You Know?
A person who is in close contact with, or in an area where animals live and roam, can get germs on their hands— even if they do not directly touch an animal.
Salmonella is usually transmitted to humans by eating foods contaminated with small amounts of animal feces. Contaminated foods usually look and smell normal. They are often foods of animal origin, such as beef, poultry, milk, fish, or eggs, but any food, including vegetables and fruit or processed foods, may become contaminated.
Foods can also be contaminated in the kitchen. Drippings from raw meat or poultry can contaminate surfaces and other foods in the refrigerator or shopping cart. When raw meat or poultry are prepared with a cutting board and knife without being washed thoroughly between uses, they can contaminate other foods.
When preparing raw meat or poultry, food handlers can transfer Salmonella on their hands to other foods if they do not wash their hands between food preparation steps. Food handlers who do not wash their hands with soap after using the bathroom can also contaminate food with Salmonella.
Contact with Infected Animals
Salmonella live in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals, including poultry and other birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Salmonella may be found in the feces of some animals, and people can become infected if they do not wash their hands after contact with animals or animal feces.
Many animals can carry Salmonella germs but appear perfectly healthy and clean. Animals’ bodies, whether covered with fur, feathers, or scales, can be contaminated with germs. Reptiles, such as turtles, lizards, and snakes, are particularly likely to harbor Salmonella. Many chicks, ducks, and other poultry including those in backyard flocks can carry Salmonella in their feces. You cannot look at an animal and tell if it is infected with Salmonella.
The area where an animal lives, such as its cage or water in its tank or the places where an animal roams, may be contaminated with Salmonella, which can cause illness in people who come into direct contact with the animal area, cage, or tank water. Learn more about CDC’s Healthy Pets Healthy People initiative.
An Atlas of Salmonella in the United States, 1968-2011 [PDF – 248 pages] summarizes 42 years of surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed Salmonella isolates from humans. The Atlas includes:
- Analyses by age, sex, geography, and season
- Reports of Salmonella isolates from animals and related sources (e.g., environment and feeds)
This is the first time CDC has posted these data online in a downloadable format. You can download the report in its entirety or in 32 individual Salmonella serotype reports.
For more information:
CDC has several surveillance systems for obtaining information about Salmonella. They serve different purposes and provide information on various features of the organism’s epidemiology, such as number of outbreaks, antimicrobial-resistant infections, and subtypes.
National Salmonella Surveillance Overview
National Salmonella surveillance is conducted through public health laboratories for culture-confirmed cases and through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Active laboratory- and population-based surveillance is conducted in FoodNet sites. Learn more about Salmonella surveillance [PDF – 12 pages].
- Annual Summaries and Data Tables: summaries of data on Salmonella infections collected through passive surveillance.
Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) captures data on pathogenic agents, foods, and settings responsible for outbreaks.
- Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS)
- National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)
- Foodborne Outbreak Online Database (FOOD)
Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) reports trends in foodborne infections and tracks the impact of food safety policies.
Laboratory-based Enteric Disease Surveillance (LEDS) collects information on Salmonella isolates causing human infection, including serotyping to help assess geographic differences and long term trends
- Salmonella surveillance overview [PDF – 12 pages]
- National Salmonella surveillance annual summaries
- Salmonella Atlas
National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System—Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) monitors and reports antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria, including Salmonella, from human, retail meats, and animals
- National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System—Enteric Bacteria (NARMS)
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
- Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
- NARMS Human Isolates Reports (CDC)
- NARMS Retail Meat Isolates Reports & Interagency Executive Reports (FDA)
- NARMS Animal Isolates Reports (USDA)
National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance (PulseNet) connects cases of illness nationwide to quickly identify outbreaks, including many that would otherwise go undetected.
- Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL)
- Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)
- PulseNet International
- Next Generation PulseNet
National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) tracks notifiable diseases across the United States.
- Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States–major pathogens. Emerging infectious diseases [PDF – 9 pages]. 2011;17(1):7-15.
- CDC. Incidence and Trends of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food — Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2006–2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(15);328-332
- CDC. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet): FoodNet Surveillance Report for 2012 (Final Report) [PDF – 53 pages]. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. 2014.
- Jones TF, et al. A case-control study of the epidemiology of sporadic Salmonella infection in infants. Pediatrics. 2006; 118(6): 2380-2387.
- Bavishi C, DuPont HL. Systematic Review: The use of proton pump inhibitors and increased susceptibility to enteric infection. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2011; 34(11-12): 1269-1281.
- CDC. Surveillance for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, United States, 2012, Annual Report [PDF – 20 pages]. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2014.
- CDC. Multistate Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to Foster Farms Brand Chicken. 2014.
- FSIS. California Wholesale Store Recalls Rotisserie Chicken Products Due to Possible Salmonella Heidelberg Contamination. 2013.
- American Public Health Association. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual 19th edition, An Official Report of the American Public Health Association. 19th edition. 2008.
- CDC, National Salmonella Surveillance Data, unpublished, 2013
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Antibiotic Resistant Threats in the United States, 2013. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2013.
- CDC. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet): FoodNet Surveillance Report for 2012 (Final Report) [PDF – 36 pages]. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. 2014.
- Reactive arthritis after enteric infections in the United States: the problem of definition. Townes JM. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jan 15;50(2):247-54.
- Page last reviewed: March 9, 2015
- Page last updated: October 24, 2018
- Content source: