Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Backyard Poultry

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Posted May 20, 2020 at 1:30 PM ET

CDC and public health officials in several states are investigating a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Hadar infections linked to contact with backyard poultry (such as chicks and ducklings).

Latest Outbreak Information
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At A Glance

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  • A total of 97 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Hadar have been reported from 28 states.
    • 17 people (34% of those with information available) have been hospitalized and no deaths have been reported.
    • 30% of ill people are children younger than 5 years of age.
  • Epidemiologic evidence shows that contact with backyard poultry (such as chicks and ducklings) is the likely source of this outbreak.
    • In interviews, 38 (86%) of 44 ill people reported contact with chicks and ducklings.
    • People reported obtaining chicks and ducklings from several sources, including agricultural stores, websites, and hatcheries.
Advice to Backyard Flock Owners
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You can get sick with a Salmonella infection from touching backyard poultry or their environment. These birds can carry Salmonella bacteria even if they look healthy and clean and show no signs of illness. Follow these tips to stay healthy with your backyard flock:

Wash your hands.

  • Always wash your hands with soap and water right after touching backyard poultry, their eggs, or anything in the area where they live and roam.
  • Adults should supervise handwashing by young children.
  • Use hand sanitizer if soap and water are not readily available.

Be safe around poultry.

  • Don’t kiss backyard poultry or snuggle them and then touch your face or mouth.
  • Don’t let backyard poultry inside the house, especially in areas where food or drink is prepared, served, or stored.
  • Set aside a pair of shoes to wear while taking care of poultry and keep those shoes outside of the house.
  • Don’t eat or drink where poultry live or roam.
  • Stay outdoors when cleaning any equipment or materials used to raise or care for poultry, such as cages and containers for feed or water.

Supervise kids around poultry.

  • Always supervise children around poultry and while they wash their hands afterward.
  • Children younger than 5 years of age shouldn’t handle or touch chicks, ducklings, or other poultry. Young children are more likely to get sick from germs like Salmonella.

Handle eggs safely.

  • Collect eggs often. Eggs that sit in the nest can become dirty or break.
  • Throw away cracked eggs. Germs on the shell can more easily enter the egg though a cracked shell.
  • Eggs with dirt and debris can be cleaned carefully with fine sandpaper, a brush, or a cloth.
  • Don’t wash warm, fresh eggs because colder water can pull germs into the egg.
  • Refrigerate eggs after collection to maintain freshness and slow germ growth.
  • Cook eggs until both the yolk and white are firm. Egg dishes should be cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F (71°C) or hotter. Raw and undercooked eggs may contain Salmonella bacteria that can make you sick.

For a complete list of recommendations, visit the Healthy Pets, Healthy People website section on backyard poultry.

Advice to Stores That Sell or Display Poultry

  • Source birds sold from suppliers that have adopted the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) best management practices to mitigate Salmonella contamination pdf icon[PDF – 1.40 MB]external icon and those which voluntarily participate in the USDA’s National Poultry Improvement Plan (USDA-NPIP) U.S. Salmonella Monitored Program pdf icon[PDF – 279 KB]external icon.
  • Provide health information to owners and potential buyers of poultry before purchase (see sample flyer below). This should include information about the risk of getting a Salmonella infection from contact with poultry.
    • A flyer pdf icon[PDF – 631 KB] describing the risk of Salmonella infections from contact with poultry and prevention recommendations is available.
  • Place health information in clear view where poultry are displayed.
  • Provide handwashing stations or hand sanitizer next to poultry display areas and tell customers to wash hands right after leaving these areas.
  • Display poultry out of reach of customers, especially children, so customers cannot easily touch poultry.
  • Clean and sanitize the areas where poultry are displayed between shipments of new poultry. Be sure to remove debris first so that the disinfectant is applied to a surface that is generally clean. Apply the disinfectant on the surface for the proper contact time listed on the disinfectant label.
  • More information on displaying animals in public settings is in the 2017 Compendium of Measures to Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settingsexternal icon.

Advice to Mail-Order Hatcheries

Symptoms of Salmonella Infection
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  • Most people infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps 6 hours to 6 days after being exposed to the bacteria.
  • The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most people recover without treatment.
  • In some people, the illness may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized. Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and then to other places in the body.
  • Children younger than 5 years of age, adults 65 and older, and people with weakened immune systems are more likely to have a severe illness.
  • For more information, see Symptoms of Salmonella Infection.
Investigation Details

May 20, 2020

CDC and public health officials in multiple states are investigating a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Hadar infections linked to contact with backyard poultry.

Public health investigators are using the PulseNet system to identify illnesses that are part of this outbreak. PulseNet is the national subtyping network of public health and food regulatory agency laboratories coordinated by CDC. DNA fingerprinting is performed on Salmonella bacteria isolated from ill people by using a standardized laboratory and data analysis method called whole genome sequencing (WGS). CDC PulseNet manages a national database of these sequences that are used to identify possible outbreaks. WGS gives investigators detailed information about the bacteria causing illness. In this investigation, WGS showed that bacteria isolated from ill people were closely related genetically. This means that people in this outbreak were more likely to share a common source of infection.

As of May 15, 2020, a total of 97 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Hadar have been reported from 28 states. A list of the states and the number of cases in each is on the map of reported cases page.

Illnesses started on dates from February 26, 2020, to May 1, 2020. Ill people range in age from less than one year to 87 years, with a median age of 37 years. Fifty-eight percent are female. Of 50 people with information available, 17 (34%) have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported.

If antibiotics are needed, some infections related to these outbreaks may be difficult to treat with some commonly recommended antibiotics and may require a different antibiotic choice. WGS of 26 isolates from ill people predicted antibiotic resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4%), ampicillin (4%), cefoxitin (4%), ceftriaxone (4%), gentamicin (4%), streptomycin (100%), sulfamethoxazole (4%), and tetracycline (100%). Testing of clinical isolates using standard antibiotic susceptibility testing methods by CDC’s National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) laboratory is currently underway.

Investigation of the Outbreak

Epidemiologic evidence shows that contact with backyard poultry (such as chicks and ducklings) is the likely source of this outbreak.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about animal contact in the week before they became ill. Of 44 people interviewed, 38 (86%) reported contact with chicks and ducklings before becoming ill. Ill people reported buying poultry from various sources, including agricultural stores, websites, and hatcheries.

Regardless of where poultry are purchased, these birds can carry Salmonella germs that can make people sick. Backyard poultry owners should always follow steps to stay healthy around their birds.

This investigation is ongoing, and CDC will provide updates when more information becomes available.