CDC NARMS Publications


  • Comparison of molecular subtyping and antimicrobial resistance detection methods used in a large multi-state outbreak of extensively drug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections linked to pet store puppies. DOI PubMed
    Joseph L, Francois Watkins L, Chen J, Tagg K, Bennett C, Caidi H, et al. J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Sep; 58(10): e00771-20.
  • Multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni outbreak linked to puppy exposure – United States, 2016–2018. MMWR PubMed
    Montgomery MP, Robertson S, Koski L, Slehi E, Stevenson LM, Silver R, et al. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep; 67(37): p. 1032–35.
  • Time to get serious about antimicrobial stewardship in the commercial pet industry (Letter). DOI
    Laughlin M, Friedman C, Nichols M. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018 Jul; 253(2): p. 154–56.
  • Report of erm(B)+ Campylobacter jejuni in the United States. DOI PubMed
    Chen JC, Tagg KA, Joung YJ, Bennett C, Francois-Watkins L, Eikmeier D, Folster JP. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 May; 62(6): e02615–17.
  • Features of illnesses caused by five species of Campylobacter, FoodNet – 2010–2015. DOI PubMed
    Patrick ME, Henao OL, Robinson T, Geissler AL, Cronquist A, Hanna S, et al. Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Jan; 146(1): p. 1–10.
  • Whole-genome sequencing analysis accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance phenotypes in Campylobacter. DOI PubMed
    Zhao S, Tyson GH, Chen Y, Li C, Mukherjee S, Young S, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Oct; 82(2): p. 459–66.
  • Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter: Susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends. DOI PubMed
    Ge B, Wang F, Sjolund-Karlsson M, McDermott PF. J Microbiol Methods. 2013 Oct; 95(1): p. 57–67

Escherichia coli

  • A population-based surveillance study of shared genotypes of Escherichia coli isolates from retail meat and suspected cases of urinary tract infections. DOI PubMed
    Yamaji R, Friedman C, Rubin J, Suh J, Thys E, McDermott P, Hung-Fan M, Riley LW. mSphere. 2018 Aug; 3(4): e00179-18.
  • Persistent pandemic lineages of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in a college community – 1999–2017. DOI PubMed
    Yamaji R, Rubin J, Thys E, Friedman C, Riley C. J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Feb; 56(4): e01834–17.
  • Investigation of Escherichia coli Harboring the mcr-1 resistance gene – Connecticut, 2016. MMWR PubMed
    Vasquez AM, Montero N, Laughlin M, Dancy E, Melmed R, Sosa L, et al. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2016 Sep; 65(36): p. 979–80.
  • Changing plasmid types responsible for extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the United States, 1996–2009. DOI PubMed
    Folster JP, Pecic G, Stroika S, Rickert R, Whichard JM. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2014 Jun; 2(2): p. 87–91.
  • Multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O145 infections associated with romaine lettuce consumption, 2010. DOI PubMed
    Taylor EV, Nguyen TA, Machesky KD, Koch E, Sotir MJ, Bohm SR, et al. J Foot Prot. 2013 Jun; 76(6): p. 939–44.

Salmonella, non-typhoidal serotypes

  • Carriage and gene content variability of the pESI-like plasmid associated with Salmonella Infantis recently established in United States poultry production. DOI PubMed
    McMillan EA, Wasilenko JL, Tagg KA, Chen JC, Simmons M, Gupta SK, et al. Genes (Basel). 2020 Dec; 11(12): p. 1516.
  • Multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype Anatum in travelers and seafood from Asia, United States. DOI PubMed
    Karp BE, Leeper MM, Chen JC, Tagg KA, Francois Watkins LK, Friedman CR. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 May; 26(5): p. 1030–33.
  • Salmonellosis. In: Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. APHA
    Healy JM, Plumb ID, Bruce BB. Editor: Heymann DL. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. 2020.
  • Outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections with decreased susceptibility of azithromycin linked to beef obtained in the United States and soft cheese obtained in Mexico – United States, 2018–2019. MMWR PubMed
    Plumb ID, Schwensohn CA, Gieraltowski L, Tecle S, Schneider ZD, Freiman J, et al. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2019 Aug; 68(33); p. 713–17.
  • CTX-M-65 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis, United States. DOI PubMed
    Brown AC, Chen JC, Francois Watkins LK, Campbell D, Folster JP, Tate H, et al. Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Dec; 24(12): p. 2284–91.
  • Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in human non-typhoidal Salmonella infections: an emerging public health problem in the United States. DOI PubMed
    Karp BE, Campbell D, Chen J, Folster J, Friedman C. Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Nov; 65(7): p. 838–49.
  • Proposed epidemiological cutoff values for ceftriaxone, cefepime, and colistin in Salmonella. DOI PubMed
    Tyson GH, Bodeis-Jones S, Caidi H, Cook K, Dessai U, Haro J, et al. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2018 Nov; 15(11): p. 701–04.
  • Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections in the US, 2004–2013: increased incidence investigated through four surveillance systems. DOI PubMed
    Crim S, Chai S, Reynolds J, Swanson K, Nisler A, Gould H, Karp B, Judd M. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2018 Oct; 15(10): p. 612–20.
  • Novel trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA34 identified in Salmonella Heidelberg in the USA. DOI PubMed
    Tagg K, Francois Watkins L, Moore MD, Bennett C, Joung YJ, Chen JC, Folster JP. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Sep; 74(1): p. 38–41.
  • Identification and characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport isolates with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in the United States. DOI PubMed
    Campbell D, Tagg K, Bicknese A, McCullough A, Chen J, Karp BE, Folster JP. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Jun; 62(7): e00653-18.
  • Bayesian hierarchical model of ceftriaxone resistance proportions among Salmonella serotype Heidelberg. DOI PubMed
    Gu W, Medalla F, Hoekstra RM. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2018 Feb; 24(2): p. 19–26.
  • Characterization of resistance genes and plasmids from outbreaks and illness clusters caused by Salmonella resistant to ceftriaxone in the United States, 2011­–2012. DOI PubMed
    Folster JP, Grass JE, Bickenese A, Taylor J, Friedman CR, Whichard JM. Microb Drug Resist. 2017 Mar; 23(2): p. 188­–93.
  • Estimated incidence estimates of antimicrobial drug-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States, 2004-2012. DOI PubMed
    Medalla F, Gu W, Mahon BE, Judd M, Folster J, Griffin PM, Hoekstra RM. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Jan; 23(1): p. 29–37.
  • Antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks – United States, 2003–2012. DOI PubMed
    Brown A, Grass JE, Richardson LC, Nisler AL, Bicknese AS, Gould LH. Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Dec; 145(4): p. 766–74.
  • Antimicrobial resistance among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from blood in the United States, 2003–2013. DOI PubMed
    Angelo KM, Reynolds J, Karp BE, Hoekstra RM, Scheel CM, Friedman C. J Infect Dis. 2016 Nov; 214(10): p. 1565–70.
  • National outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections linked to a single poultry company. DOI PubMed
    Gieraltowski L, Higa J, Peralta V, Green A, Schwensohn C, Rosen H, et al. PLoS One. 2016 Sep; 11(9): e0162369.
  • Whole-genome sequencing for detecting antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoidal Salmonella. DOI PubMed
    McDermott PF, Tyson GH, Kabera C, Chen Y, Li C, Folster JP, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Aug; 60(9): p. 5515–20.
  • Attribution of Salmonella enterica serotype Hadar infections using antimicrobial resistance data from two points in the food supply system. DOI PubMed
    Vieira AR, Grass J, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Plumblee JR, Tate H, Cole DJ. Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Jul; 144(9): p. 1983–1990.
  • A multistate investigation of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype I 4, [5],12:i:- infections as part of an international outbreak associated with frozen feeder rodents. DOI PubMed
    Cartwright EJ, Nguyen T, Melluso C, Ayers T, Lane C, Hodges A, et al. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016 Feb; 63(1): p. 62–71.
  • Emergence of community-acquired, multidrug-resistant invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in rural Western Kenya, 2009-2013. DOI PubMed
    Oneko M, Kariuki S, Muturi-Kioi V, Otieno K, Otieno VO, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Nov; 61 (Suppl 4): S310–16.
  • Outbreaks of Salmonella infections attributed to beef – United States, 1973-2011. DOI PubMed
    Laufer AS, Grass J, Holt K, Whichard JM, Griffin PM, Gould LH. Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Jul; 143(9): p. 2003–13.
  • Identification and characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Albert isolates in the United States. DOI PubMed
    Folster JP, Campbell D, Grass J, Brown AC, Bicknese A, Tolar B, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 May; 59(5): p. 2774–79.
  • Nationwide outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections associated with ground turkey: United States, 2011. DOI PubMed
    Routh JA, Pringle J, Mohr M, Bidol S, Arends K, Adams-Cameron M, et al. Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Apr; 143(15): p. 3227–34.
  • Incidence of antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States, 2004–2011. DOI PMC
    Medalla FA, Weidong G, Mahon BE, Fullerton K, Folster JP, Griffin PM, Hoekstra RM. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2014 Dec; 1(Suppl 1): S237–38.
  • Quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with international travel. DOI PubMed
    O’Donnell AT, Vieira AR, Huang JY, Whichard JM, Cole D, Karp BE. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Nov; 59(9): e139–41.
  • Comparative genomic analysis and virulence differences in closely related Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg isolates from humans, retail meats, and animals. DOI PubMed
    Hoffmann M, Zhao S, Pettengill J, Luo Y, Monday SR, Abbott J, et al. Genome Biol Evol. 2014 May; 6(5): p. 1046–68.
  • Clinical outcomes of nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone, and multidrug-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella infections compared with pansusceptible infections in FoodNet sites, 2006-2008. DOI PubMed
    Krueger AL, Greene SA, Barzilay EJ, Henao O, Vugia D, Hanna S, et al. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 May; 11(5): p. 335–41.
  • Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky sequence type 198. DOI PubMed
    Rickert-Hartman R, Folster JP. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 May; 20(5): p. 910–11.
  • Characterization of blaCMY plamids and their possible role in source attribution of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections. DOI PubMed
    Folster JP, Tolar B, Pecic G, Sheehan D, Rickert R, Hise K, et al. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 April; 11(4): p. 301–06.
  • Fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing of Salmonella enterica: detection of acquired resistance and selection of zone diameter breakpoints for levofloxacin and ofloxacin. DOI PubMed
    Sjölund-Karlsson M, Howie RL, Crump JA, Whichard JM. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Mar; 52(3): p. 877–84.
  • A comparison of non-typhoidal Salmonella from humans and food animals using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. DOI PubMed
    Sandt CH, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Tewari D, Ostroff St, Joyce K, M’ikanatha NM. PLoS ONE. 2013 Oct; 8(10): e77836.
  • Outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg infections linked to a single poultry producer – 13 states, 2012-2013. MMWR PubMed
    Grinnell M, Provo G, Marsden-Haug N, Stigi KA, Debress E, Crarey E, et al. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2013 Jul; 62(27): p. 553–56.
  • Occurrence of β-Lactamase genes among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolated from humans, food animals, and retail meats in the United States and Canada. DOI PubMed
    Sjolund-Karlsson M, Howie R, Blickenstaff K, Boerlin P, Ball T, Chalmers G, et al. Microb Drug Resist. 2013 Jun; 19(3): p. 191–97.
  • Antimicrobial resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from animals, retail meats, and humans in the United States and Canada. DOI PubMed
    Glenn LM, Lindsey RL, Folster JP, Pecic G, Boerlin P, Gilmour MW, et al. Microb Drug Resist. 2013 Jun; 19(3): p. 175–84.
  • Increase in resistance to ceftriaxone and nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin and decrease in multidrug resistance among Salmonella strains, United States, 1996–2009. DOI PubMed
    Medalla F, Hoekstra RM, Whichard JM, Barzilay EJ, Chiller TM, Joyce K, et al. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013 Apr; 10(4): p. 302–09.

Salmonella, serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi

  • Typhoid fever in the U.S. pediatric population, 1999-2015: opportunities for improvement. DOI PubMed
    McAteer J, Derado G, Hughes M, Bhatnagar A, Medalla F, Chatham-Stevens K, Appiah GD, Mintz E. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul; ciaa914.
  • Update on extensively drug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhi infections among travelers to or from Pakistan and report of Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhi infections among travelers to Iraq – United States, 2018–2019. MMWR PubMed
    Francois Watkins LK, Winstead A, Appiah GD, Friedman C, Medalla F, Hughes M, et al. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2020 May; 69(20): p. 618–622.
  • Sequencing and characterization of five extensively drug resistant Salmonella Typhi isolates implicated in human infections from Punjab, Pakistan. DOI PubMed
    Tagg K, Amir A, Ikram A, Chen J, Kim J, Meservey E, et al. Am Soc for Microb. 2020 Mar; 9(13): e01466–19.
  • Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi infections in the United States among travelers returning from Pakistan. MMWR PubMed
    Chatham-Stephens K, Medalla F, Hughes M, Appiah G, Aubert R, Caidi H, et al. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2019 Jan; 68(1): p. 11–13.
  • Changing patterns in enteric fever incidence and increasing antibiotic resistance of enteric fever isolates in the United States, 2008–2012. DOI PubMed
    Date KA, Newton AE, Medalla F, Blackstock A, Richardson L, McCullough A, Mintz ED, Mahon BE. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug; 63(3): p. 322–29.
  • Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A infections in travelers returning from Cambodia, United States. DOI PubMed
    Judd MC, Grass JE, Mintz ED, Bicknese A, Mahon BE. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Jun; 21(6): p. 1089–91.
  • Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, United States. DOI PubMed
    Sjolund-Karlsson M, Howie R, Rickert R, Newton A, Gonzalez-Aviles G, Crump JA. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2015 Jan; 45(1): p. 88–90.


  • Genomic drivers of multi-drug resistant Shigella affecting vulnerable patient populations in the US and abroad. DOI PubMed
    Worley JN, Javkar K, Hoffmann M, Hysell K, Garica-Williams A, Tagg K, et al. Am Soc of Microb. 2021 Jan; 12(1): e03188–20.
  • Identification and characterization of Shigella with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin in the United States, 2005 to 2014. DOI PubMed
    Campbell D, Bowen A, Bhatnagar A, McCullough A, Grass J, Chen J, Folster J. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Jun; 21: p. 417–19.
  • Evidence of failure of oral third-generation cephalosporin treatment for Shigella sonnei infection. DOI PubMed
    Collins J, Friedman C, Birhane M, Karp B, Osinski A, Montgomery M, et al. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Apr; 7(4): ofaa113.
  • Shigellosis. In: CDC Yellow Book 2020: Health Information for International Travel. CDC
    Francois Watkins LK, Appiah GD. Editors: Brunette GW, Nemhauser JB. New York: Oxford University Press. 2020.
  • Novel quinolone resistance determinant, qepA8, in Shigella flexneri isolated in the United States, 2016. DOI PubMed
    Webb HE, Tagg KA, Chen JC, Kim J, Lindsey R, Francois Watkins L, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Sep; 63(12): e01458–19.
  • Notes from the field: outbreak of multidrug-resistant Shigella sonnei infections in a retirement community – Vermont, October–November 2018. MMWR PubMed
    Strysko J, Fialkowski V, Marsh Z, Wadhwa A, Collins J, Gharpure R, et al. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2019 May; 68(17): p. 405–06.
  • Elevated risk for antimicrobial drug–resistant Shigella infection among men who have sex with men, United States, 2011–2015. DOI PubMed
    Bowen A, Grass J, Bicknese A, Campbell D, Hurd J, Kirkcaldy R. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Sep; 22(9): p. 1613–16.
  • Importation and domestic transmission of Shigella sonnei resistant to ciprofloxacin – United States, May 2014–February 2015. MMWR PubMed
    Bowen A, Hurd J, Hoover C, Khachadourian Y, Traphagen E, Harvey E, et al. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2015 Apr; 64(12): p. 318–20.
  • Shigellosis with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. DOI PubMed
    Heiman KE, Grass JE, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Bowen A. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Nov; 33(11): p. 1204–05.
  • Notes from the field: Shigella with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin among men who have sex with men – United States, 2002–2013. MMWR PubMed
    Heiman KE, Karlsson M, Grass J, Howie B, Kirkcaldy RD, Mahon B, Brooks JT, Bowen A. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2014 Feb; 63(06): p. 132–33.
  • Outbreak of infections caused by Shigella sonnei with reduced susceptibility to azithromycin in the United States. DOI PubMed
    Sjölund-Karlsson M, Bowen A, Reporter R, Folster JP, Grass JE, Howie RL, Taylor J, Whichard JM. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Mar; 57(3): p. 1559–60.


  • Multidrug-resistant incA/C plasmid in Vibrio cholerae from Haiti. DOI PubMed
    Folster JP, Katz L, McCullough A, Parsons MB, Knipe K, Sammons SA, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Nov; 20(11): p. 1951–53.
  • Evolutionary dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a single-source introduction to Haiti. DOI PubMed
    Katz LS, Petkau A, Beaulaurier J, Tyler S, Antonova ES, Turnsek MA, et al. mBio. 2013 Jul; 4(4): e00398–13.


  • Plasmid DNA isolation and visualization: isolation and characterization of plasmids from clinical samples. DOI PubMed
    Tagg KA, Venturini C, Kamruzzaman M, Ginn AN, Partridge SR. Methods Mol Biol. 2020 Oct; 2075: p. 3–20.
  • Detecting national human enteric disease outbreaks linked to animal contact in the United States of America. DOI PubMed
    Nichols M, Stevenson L, Koski L, Basler C, Wise M, Whitlock L, et al. Rev Sci Tech. 2020 Aug; 39(2): p. 471–80.
  • Increasing non-susceptibility to antibiotics within carried pneumococcal serotypes – Alaska, 2008–2015. DOI PubMed
    Plumb ID, Gounder PP, Bruden DJT, Bulkow LR, Rudolph KM, Singleton RJ, Hennessy TW, Bruce MG. Vaccine. 2020 Jun; 38(27): p. 4273–80.
  • Yersiniosis. In: CDC Yellow Book 2020: Health Information for International Travel. CDC
    Francois Watkins LK, Friedman CR. Editors: Brunette GW, Nemhauser JB. New York: Oxford University Press. 2020.
  • Quinolone nonsusceptibility among enteric pathogens isolated from international travelers – Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) and National Antimicrobial Monitoring System (NARMS), 10 United States sites, 2004–2014. DOI PubMed
    Grass JE, Kim S, Huang JY, Morrison SM, McCullough AE, Bennett C, Friedman CR, Bowen A. PLoS One. 2019 Dec; 14(12): e0225800.
  • Urban beaches are environmental hotspots for antibiotic resistance following rainfall. DOI PubMed
    Carney RL, Labbate M, Siboni N, Tagg KA, Mitrovic SM, Seymour JR. Water Res. 2019 Dec; 167: 115081.
  • National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System: two decades of advancing public health through integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance. DOI PubMed
    Karp BE, Tate H, Plumblee JR, Dessai U, Whichard JM, Thacker EL, et al. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2017 Oct; 14(10): p. 545–57.
  • Development and validation of a clinical laboratory improvement amendments- compliant multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of mcr genes. DOI PubMed
    Daniels JB, Campbell D, Boyd S, Ansari U, Lutgring J, Rasheed JK, Halpin AL, Sjölund-Karlsson M. Microb Drug Resist. 2019 Sep; 25(7): p. 991–96.
  • One Health and antimicrobial resistance, a United States perspective. DOI PubMed
    Bright-Ponte SJ, Walters BK, Tate H, Durso LM, Whichard JM, Bjork KE, et al. Rev Sci Tech. 2019 May; 38(1): p. 173–184.
  • Early azithromycin treatment to prevent severe lower respiratory tract illnesses in children. DOI PubMed
    Fleming-Dutra KE, Friedman CR, Hicks LA. JAMA. 2016 May; 315(19): p. 2121–22.