CDC’s Role in Tracking Resistance
NARMS Surveillance and Laboratory Testing
CDC, through NARMS, tracks antibiotic resistance and studies patterns of emerging resistance in select bacteria transmitted commonly through food. Surveillance helps identify patterns of emerging resistance that can guide public health prevention and policy efforts to protect people from resistant infections. This information is used by a variety of stakeholders, including federal regulatory agencies, policymakers, consumer advocacy groups, industry, and the public.
National surveillance for NARMS is in all 50 states; several large metropolitan areas participate independently (New York City, Los Angeles, Houston, and Washington, D.C.).
Laboratory Testing and Isolate Submissions
The CDC NARMS laboratory conducts antibiotic susceptibility testing on isolates from sporadic cases and outbreaks of illness. The laboratory also confirms and studies bacteria that have new antibiotic resistance patterns and performs research to understand the genetic mechanisms of resistance and how they are spread.
Public health laboratories submit every 20th non-typhoidal Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli O157 isolate received at their laboratories to CDC NARMS for antibiotic susceptibility testing. They also submit every Salmonella serotype Typhi, serotype Paratyphi A, serotype Paratyphi C, and Vibrio (other than V. cholerae) isolate received at their laboratories.
Public health laboratories of the 10 state health departments that participate in CDC’s Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) also forward a sample of Campylobacter isolates to CDC for susceptibility testing. The FoodNet sites are Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Tennessee, and selected counties in California, Colorado, and New York.
|Pathogen tested||Year testing began||Current sampling scheme|
|Salmonella, non-Typhi1||1996||1 in 20|
|E. coli O157||1996||1 in 20|
|Shigella||1999||1 in 20|
|Salmonella Paratyphi A and C1||2008||all|
|Vibrio species other than V. cholerae||2009||all|
1 From 1996–2007, Salmonella Paratyphi A, B, and C were included in the 1:20 sampling scheme for non-Typhi Salmonella. Since January 2008, sites were asked to submit all Paratyphi A and C isolates to NARMS. Salmonella Paratyphi B isolates continue to be included in the 1 in 20 sampling scheme for non-Typhi Salmonella.
CDC NARMS tests bacteria from outbreaks for antibiotic resistance. Resistance patterns and mechanisms can help investigators identify the source of an outbreak or provide clues about the source of the outbreak. Investigations of outbreaks of resistant Salmonella traced to food-producing animals show how animal and human health are linked.