Antibiotic Resistance, Food, and Food Animals
The American food supply is among the safest in the world, but people can still get sick from foodborne bacteria causing intestinal infections. These infections can be caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Antibiotics are medicines that kill or stop the growth of bacteria. Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria develop the ability to survive or grow despite being exposed to antibiotics designed to kill them.
Antibiotics save lives, but any time antibiotics are used, they can contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance spreads through people, animals, and the environment. Improving antibiotic use, including reducing unnecessary use, can help stop resistance from spreading.
Learn what CDC is doing to help stop antibiotic-resistant infections from food and animals, and how you can protect yourself and your family.
One way people can get intestinal (gut) infections is from food. People with intestinal infections usually do not need antibiotics to get better. However, people with severe infections (or those at risk of severe infections) may need antibiotics. People at risk for serious disease or complications include infants, people who are 65 and older, and people who have health problems or take medicines that lower the body’s ability to fight germs and sickness. If an infection is antibiotic-resistant, some types of antibiotics might not effectively treat it. Infections with resistant bacteria cause more severe or dangerous illness and often require more costly treatments with higher risks for side effects.
Animals, like people, carry bacteria in their guts. Some of these bacteria may be antibiotic resistant. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can get in food in several ways:
- When animals are slaughtered and processed for food, resistant bacteria can contaminate meat or other animal products.
- Animal waste (poop) can contain resistant bacteria and get into the surrounding environment. Fruits and vegetables can get contaminated through contact with soil, water, or fertilizer that contains animal waste.
People can get antibiotic-resistant intestinal infections by handling or eating contaminated food or coming in contact with animal waste (poop), either through direct contact with animals and animal environments or through contaminated drinking or swimming water. Infections can also spread between people.
In recent years, CDC has investigated many multistate intestinal illness outbreaks caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These outbreaks have been linked to contaminated food and to contact with farm animals, pets, and pet food and treats.
Antibiotic-resistant foodborne illnesses spread the same way as other foodborne illnesses. You can take steps to help protect yourself and your family.
- Follow simple food safety tips:
- CLEAN. Wash your hands after touching raw meat, poultry, seafood, or their juices, or uncooked eggs. Wash your work surfaces, cutting boards, utensils, and dishes before, during, and after cooking.
- SEPARATE. Germs from raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs can spread to fruits, vegetables, and other ready-to-eat foods unless you keep them separate. Use one cutting board to prepare raw meats and another for foods that will not be cooked before they’re eaten. Don’t put cooked meat on a plate that had raw meat on it.
- COOK. Use a food thermometer to ensure that foods are cooked to a safe internal temperature: 145°F for whole cuts of beef, pork, lamb, and veal, such as steaks, chops, and roasts, 160°F for ground red meats, and 165°F for poultry, including ground chicken and turkey.
- CHILL. Keep your refrigerator below 40°F and refrigerate foods within 2 hours of cooking (refrigerate within 1 hour if the outdoor temperature is above 90°F).
- Wash your hands after touching pets and other animals, or their food, water, poop, belongings (such as toys and bowls), or habitats (such as beds, cages, tanks, coops, stalls, and barns).
- Report suspected illness from food to your local health department.
- Review CDC’s Traveler’s Health recommendations when preparing for international travel.
To help slow the spread of antibiotic resistance, take antibiotics only when needed, and take them exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
CDC is working to prevent infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria by:
- Tracking antibiotic-resistant infections and studying how resistance emerges and spreads.
- Detecting and investigating antibiotic-resistant outbreaks quickly to identify their sources and stop and prevent their spread.
- Determining the sources of antibiotic-resistant infections that are commonly spread through food and animals.
- Strengthening the ability of state and local health departments to detect, respond to, and report antibiotic-resistant infections.
- Educating the public and food workers on prevention methods, including safe food handling, safe contact with animals, and proper handwashing.
- Ensuring veterinarians and livestock and poultry producers have tools, information, and training around antibiotic use.
- Supporting the important work that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture are doing to improve antibiotic useexternal icon in veterinary medicine and agriculture.
Learn more ways that CDC and partners are fighting antibiotic resistance in food and food animals.
For more information on antibiotic resistance and food and animals safety, visit CDC’s pages for
More information and data on specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria can be found on these pages: