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Podcast: Raw or Nonpasteurized Products Can Make You Sick

Dr. Adam Langer, CDC epidemiologist, discusses the dangers of consuming raw or nonpasteurized dairy products in this CDC podcast, “Raw or Nonpasteurized Products Can Make You Sick” (includes transcript).

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NORS Dashboard provides information on foodborne outbreaks reported to CDC since 1998. You can use it to search outbreak data and see results displayed on interactive maps, graphs, and charts.

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Publications

  • Increased outbreaks associated with nonpasteurized milk, United States, 2007–2012. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Mungai EA, Behravesh CB, Gould LH. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Jan; 21(1): p. 119–22.
  • Nonpasteurized dairy products, disease outbreaks, and state laws—United States, 1993–2006. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Langer AJ, Ayers T, Grass J, Lynch M, Angulo FJ, Mahon BE. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Mar; 18(3): p. 385–91.

Campylobacter outbreaks linked to raw milk

  • Campylobacter jejuni infection associated with unpasteurized milk and cheese—Kansas, 2007. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Hunt DC, Banez Ocfemia MC, Neises D, Hansen G, Aghoghovbia ST. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 Jan 2; 57(51): p. 1377–79.
  • Outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infections associated with drinking unpasteurized milk procured through a cow-leasing program—Wisconsin, 2001. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Harrington P, Archer J, Davis JP, Croft DR, Varma JK. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002 Jun 28; 51(25): p. 548–49.
  • A one-year study of endemic campylobacteriosis in a midwestern city: association with consumption of raw milk. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Schmidt GP, Schaefer RE, Plikaytis BD, Schaefer JR, Bryner JH, Wintermeyer LA, et al. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jul; 156(1): p. 218–22.
  • Epidemiologic study of campylobacteriosis in Iowa and the possible role of unpasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection. PubMedexternal icon
    Warner DP, Bryner JH, Beran GW. Am J Vet Res. 1986 Feb; 47(2): p. 254–58.
  • Campylobacter infection associated with raw milk:  an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Campylobacter jejuni and thermotolerant Campylobacter fetus subsp fetus. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Klein BS, Vergeront JM, Blaser MJ, Edmonds P, Brenner DJ, Janssen D, et al. JAMA. 1986 Jan 17; 255(3): p. 361–64.
  • Epidemiologic and laboratory investigation of an outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis associated with raw milk. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Kornblatt AN, Barrett T, Morris GK, Tosh FE. Am J Epidemiol. 1985 Nov; 122(5): p. 844–49.
  • Epidemiologic notes and reports Campylobacter outbreak associated with certified raw milk products—California. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1984 Oct 5; 33(39): p. 562.
  • Campylobacteriosis associated with raw milk consumption—Pennsylvania. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1983 Jul 8; 32(26): p. 337­–38, 344.
  • Human Campylobacter infection associated with certified raw milk. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Potter ME, Blaser MJ, Sikes RK, Kaufmann AF, Wells JG. Am J Epidemiol. 1983 Apr; 117(4): p. 475–83.
  • Campylobacter enteritis: a large outbreak traced to commercial raw milk. PMCexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Taylor DN, Porter BW, Williams CA, Miller HG, Bopp CA, Blake PA. West J Med. 1982 Nov; 137(5): p. 365–69.
  • Prevalence and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in unpasteurized milk. PMCexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Doyle MP, Roman DJ. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1982 Nov; 44(5): p. 1154–58.
  • Campylobacter enteritis associated with unpasteurized milk. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Blaser MJ, Cravens J, Powers BW, Laforce FM, Wang WL. Am J Med. 1979 Oct; 67(4): p. 715–18.

E. coli outbreaks linked to raw milk

  • Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in children associated with raw milk and raw colostrum from cows—California, 2006. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Schneider J, Mohle-Boetani J, Vugia D, Menon M. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Jun 13; 57(23): p. 625–28.
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with drinking raw milk—Washington and Oregon, November–December 2005. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Bhat M, Denny J, MacDonald K, Hofmann J, Jain S, Lynch M, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Mar 2; 56(8): p. 165–67.
  • An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections among visitors to a dairy farm. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Crump JA, Sulka AC, Langer AJ, Schaben C, Crielly AS, Gage R, et al. 2002 Aug 22; 347(8): p. 555–60.
  • A prolonged outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections caused by commercially distributed raw milk. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Keene WE, Hedberg K, Herriott DE, Hancock DD, McKay RW, Barrett TJ, et al. J Infect Dis. 1997 Sep; 176(3): p. 815–18.

Listeria outbreaks linked to raw milk

  • Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections associated with pasteurized milk from a local dairy—Massachusetts, 2007. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Cumming M, Kludt P, Matyas B, DeMaria A, Stiles T, Han L, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Oct 10; 57(40): p. 1097–100.

Salmonella outbreaks linked to raw milk

  • An outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections with an unusually long incubation period. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Brooks JT, Matyas BT, Fontana J, DeGroot MA, Beuchat LR, Hoekstra M, Friedman CR. 2012 Mar; 9(3): p. 245–48.
  • Notes from the field: Salmonella Newport infections associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk—Utah, April–June 2010. MMWR
    Hall JM, Rolfs RT, Herlihy RK, Dimond MPS, Holbrook J, Smith LH, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 Jul 9; 59(26): p. 817–18.
  • Salmonella Typhimurium infection associated with raw milk and cheese consumption—Pennsylvania, 2007. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Lind L, Reeser J, Stayman K, Deasy M, Moll M, Weltman A, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Nov 9; 56(44): p. 1161–64.
  • Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections associated with drinking unpasteurized milk—Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee, 2002–2003. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Holt J, Propes D, Patterson C, Bannerman T, Nicholson L, Bundesen M, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Jul 4; 52(26): p. 613–15.
  • Salmonella Dublin infections in the United States, 1979–1980. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Taylor DN, Bied JM, Munro JS, Feldman RA. J Infect Dis. 1982 Sep; 146(3): p. 322–27.

Outbreaks of other pathogens (germs) linked to raw milk

  • A cluster of Coxiella burnetii infections associated with exposure to vaccinated goats and their unpasteurized dairy products. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Fishbein DB, Raoult D. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Jul; 47(1): p. 35–40.

E. coli outbreaks linked to cheese made with raw milk

  • An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 hemorrhagic colitis associated with unpasteurized gouda cheese. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Honish L, Predy G, Hislop N, Chui L, Kowalewska-Grochowska K, Trottier L, et al. Can J Public Health. 2005 May–Jun; 96(3): p. 182–84.
  • Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with eating fresh cheese curds—Wisconsin, June 1998. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Durch J, Ringhand T, Manner K, Barnett M, Proctor M, Ahrabi-Fard S, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000 Oct 13; 49(40): p. 911–13.

Listeria outbreaks linked to cheese made with raw milk

  • Listeriosis outbreaks associated with soft cheeses, United States, 1998–2014. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Jackson KA, Gould LH, Hunter JC, Kucerova Z, Jackson BR. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 June; 24(6): p. 1116–18.
  • Outbreak of listeriosis associated with homemade Mexican-style cheese—North Carolina, October 2000–January 2001. MMWR PubMedexternal icon
    Boggs JD, Whitwam RE, Hale LM, Briscoe RP, Kahn SE, MacCormack JN, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001 Jul 6; 50(26): p. 560­­–62.
  • Epidemic listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Linnan MJ, Mascola L ,Lou XD, Goulet V, May S, Salminen C, et al. 1988 Sep 29; 319(13): p. 823–28.

Salmonella outbreaks linked to cheese made with raw milk

  • Outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections with decreased susceptibility of azithromycin linked to beef obtained in the United States and soft cheese obtained in Mexico — United States, 2018–2019. DOI PubMedexternal icon
    Plumb ID, Schwensohn CA, Gieraltowski L, Tecle S, Schneider ZD, Freiman J, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Aug; 68(33): p. 713–17.
  • Two outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhimurium DT104 infections linked to raw-milk cheese in Northern California. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Cody SH, Abbott SL, Marfin AA, Schulz B, Wagner P, Robbins K, et al. JAMA. 1999 May 19; 281(19): p. 1805–10.
  • Investigation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhimurium DT104 infections linked to raw-milk cheese in Washington State. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Villar RG, Macek MD, Simons S, Hayes PS, Goldoft MJ, Lewis JH, et al. JAMA. 1999 May 19; 281(19): p. 1822–26.

Outbreaks of other pathogens (germs) linked to cheese made with raw milk

  • The changing epidemiology of human brucellosis in Texas, 1977–1986. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Taylor JP, Perdue JN. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Jul; 130(1): p. 160–65.
  • Outbreaks attributed to cheese: differences between outbreaks caused by unpasteurized and pasteurized dairy products, United States, 1998–2011. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Gould LH, Mungai E, Behravesh CB. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Jul; 11(7): p. 545–51.
  • Characteristics of consumers of unpasteurized milk in the United States. DOIexternal icon
    Buzby JC, Gould LH, Kendall ME, Jones TF, Robinson T, Blayney DP. J Consum Aff. 2013 Jan 7; 47(1): p. 153–66.
  • Cheese-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1973 to 1992: sanitary manufacturing practices protect consumers. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Altekruse SF, Timbo BB, Mowbray JC, Bean NH, Potter ME. J Food Prot. 1998 Oct; 61(10): p. 1405–7.
  • The epidemiology of raw milk-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported in the United States, 1973 through 1992. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Headrick ML, Korangy S, Bean NH, Angulo FJ, Altekruse SF, Potter ME, et al. Am J Public Health. 1998 Aug; 88(8): p. 1219–21.
  • Unpasteurized milk. The hazards of a health fetish. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Potter ME, Kaufmann AF, Blake PA, Feldman RA. JAMA. 1984 Oct 19; 252(15): p. 2048–52.
  • Raw milk: a continuing vehicle for the transmission of infectious disease agents in the United States. DOIexternal icon PubMedexternal icon
    Chin J. J Infect Dis. 1982 Sep; 146(3): p. 440–41.