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Eight Multistate Outbreaks of Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Live Poultry in Backyard Flocks (Final Update)

Posted October 6, 2016 2:45PM ET

These outbreak investigations are over. However, people can still get a Salmonella infection from live poultry, including those in backyard flocks. Read more information about Salmonella from live poultry and how people can reduce the chance they or their children will get an infection.

Highlights

  • Read the Advice to Backyard Flock Owners »
  • Although these outbreak investigations are over, people can still get a Salmonella infection from live poultry, including those kept in backyard flocks. Read more information about Salmonella from live poultry and how people can reduce their risk of infection. Regardless of where they were purchased, all live poultry can carry Salmonella bacteria, even if they look healthy and clean.
  • This year saw the largest number of illnesses linked to contact with backyard poultry ever recorded. These outbreaks are a reminder to follow steps to keep your family healthy while enjoying your backyard flock.
    • Always wash hands thoroughly with soap and water right after touching live poultry or anything in the area where the birds live and roam.
    • Do not let live poultry inside the house.
    • Do not let children younger than 5 years handle or touch chicks, ducklings, or other live poultry without adult supervision.
  • CDC, multiple states, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) investigated eight separate multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections linked to contact with live poultry in backyard flocks.
    • In the eight outbreaks, 895 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella were reported from 48 states.
    • Illnesses started on dates ranging from January 4, 2016 to September 10, 2016.
    • 209 ill people were hospitalized, and three deaths were reported. Salmonella infection was considered to be a cause of death for one person in Mississippi. Although the two people who died in Kentucky and New Jersey had a Salmonella infection, the infection was not considered to be a cause of death.
    • 254 (28%) ill people were children 5 years or younger.
  • Epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory findings linked the eight outbreaks to contact with live poultry, such as chicks and ducklings, sourced from multiple hatcheries.

Outbreak Summary

Introduction

As of September 26, 2016, 895 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella were reported from 48 states. A list of states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page.

Among people for whom information is available, illnesses started on dates ranging from January 4, 2016 to September 10, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 106, with a median age of 27. Of ill people, 52% were female. Among 761 ill people with available information, 209 (27%) reported being hospitalized, and three deaths were reported. Salmonella was considered to be a cause of death for one person in Mississippi. Although the two people who died in Kentucky and New Jersey had a Salmonella infection, the infection was not considered to be a cause of death.

Investigation of the Outbreak

Epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory findings linked the eight outbreaks to contact with live poultry, such as chicks and ducklings, from multiple hatcheries.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals and foods consumed during the week before becoming ill. Contact with live poultry (chicks, chickens, ducks, ducklings) in the week before becoming ill was reported by 552 of 745 ill people interviewed, or 74%.

Ill people reported purchasing live baby poultry from several suppliers, including feed supply stores, Internet sites, hatcheries, and friends in multiple states. Ill people reported purchasing live poultry to produce eggs, learn about agriculture, have as a hobby, enjoy for fun, keep as pets, or to give as Easter gifts. Some of the places ill people reported contact with live poultry included their home, someone else’s home, work, or school settings.

Public health officials collected samples from live poultry and the environments where the poultry live and roam from the homes of ill people in several states or at locations of purchase in several states. Laboratory testing isolated five of the outbreak strains of Salmonella.

More information about each outbreak is available in the outbreak summaries below.

Summaries of the Eight Separate Multistate Outbreak Investigations

Outbreak 1: Salmonella Enteritidis Investigation

Outbreak Summary

Since the last update on July 19, 2016, 44 more ill people were reported from 14 states in this outbreak.

A total of 249 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Enteritidis was reported from 25 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: California (6), Colorado (1), Connecticut (9), Florida (9), Kentucky (23), Maine (1), Maryland (2), Michigan (36), Minnesota (7), Missouri (8), North Carolina (7), New Hampshire (1), New York (39), Nevada (1), Ohio (30), Oklahoma (1), Pennsylvania (19), Rhode Island (4), South Carolina (1), Tennessee (6), Virginia (6), Vermont (17), Washington (4), Wisconsin (4), and West Virginia (7).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between January 4, 2016 and August 18, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 87, with a median age of 22.5. Of ill people, 53% were female. Among the 228 ill people with available information, 52 (23%) were hospitalized. One death was reported; Salmonella infection was not considered to be a cause of death.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 242 ill people who were interviewed, 240 (99%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Case Count Update
July 19, 2016

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, 73 more ill people have been reported from 19 states in this outbreak.

A total of 205 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Enteritidis was reported from 23 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: California (6), Colorado (1), Connecticut (9), Florida (9), Kentucky (17), Maine (1), Maryland (2), Michigan (32), Minnesota (2), Missouri (6), North Carolina (4), New Hampshire (1), New York (35), Ohio (30), Oklahoma (1), Pennsylvania (13), Rhode Island (3), South Carolina (1), Virginia (5), Vermont (15), Washington (3), Wisconsin (2), West Virginia (7).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between January 4, 2016 and June 25, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 87, with a median age of 18. Of ill people, 54% were female. Among the 193 ill people with available information, 41 (21%) were hospitalized. One death was reported; Salmonella infection was not considered to be a cause of death.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 205 ill people who were interviewed, 203 (99%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Initial Announcement
June 2, 2016

A total of 132 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were reported from 15 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: California (6), Connecticut (4), Florida (8), Kentucky (15), Maryland (1), Michigan (25), Minnesota (1), North Carolina (3), New York (23), Ohio (18), Oklahoma (1), Pennsylvania (9), Rhode Island (2), Virginia (4), and Vermont (12).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between January 4, 2016 and May 11, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 87, with a median age of 18. Of ill people, 58% were female. Among the 106 ill people with available information, 18 (17%) were hospitalized. One death was reported; Salmonella infection was not considered to be a contributing factor in this death.

Local health officials in Michigan collected environmental samples from live poultry at feed stores; testing was performed at the state lab and the outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated.

Samples from live poultry and their environment were collected at the Minnesota patient’s home. Four of six samples (all from poultry purchased this spring) contained the outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis.

Outbreak 2: Salmonella Muenster Investigation

Outbreak Summary

Since the last update on July 19, 2016, 1 more ill person was reported from one state in this outbreak.

A total of 25 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Muenster was reported from eight states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Indiana (3), Kentucky (1), Michigan (5), Missouri (1), New York (1), Ohio (7), Pennsylvania (2), and Tennessee (5).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 11, 2016 and July 3, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 74, with a median age of less than one year. Fifty-eight percent were male. Among 20 ill people with available information, 8 (40%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 20 ill people who were interviewed, 14 (70%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Case Count Update
July 19, 2016

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, five more ill people have been reported from four states in this outbreak.

A total of 24 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Muenster was reported from eight states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Indiana (2), Kentucky (1), Michigan (5), Missouri (1), New York (1), Ohio (7), Pennsylvania (2), and Tennessee (5).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 11, 2016 and May 29, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 73, with a median age of less than one year. Fifty-six percent were male. Among 20 ill people with available information, 8 (40%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 20 ill people who were interviewed, 14 (70%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Initial Announcement
June 2, 2016

Nineteen people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Muenster were reported from seven states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Indiana (1), Kentucky (1), Michigan (4), Missouri (1), Ohio (7), Pennsylvania (2), and Tennessee (3).

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 15 ill people who were interviewed, 12 (80%) reported contact with live poultry.

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 11, 2016 and May 9, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 71, with a median age of 3. Of ill people, 58 percent were male. Among the 14 ill people with available information, 6 (43%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

Local health officials in Michigan collected environmental samples from live poultry at feed stores; testing was performed at the state lab and the outbreak strain of Salmonella Muenster was isolated.

Outbreak 3: Salmonella Hadar Investigation

Outbreak Summary

Since the last update on July 19, 2016, 20 more ill people were reported from 14 states in this outbreak.

A total of 86 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Hadar was reported from 29 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (3), Alaska (1), Arkansas (3), California (3), Colorado (2), Connecticut (1), Georgia (1), Iowa (1), Maine (1), Massachusetts (1), Minnesota (6), Mississippi (1), Montana (6), New Hampshire (1), New Jersey (1), New York (5), North Carolina (10), North Dakota (3), Oklahoma (1), Oregon (1), Pennsylvania (4), South Carolina (6), South Dakota (5), Tennessee (2), Texas (1), Virginia (8), Washington (1), West Virginia (6), and Wisconsin (1).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 27, 2016 and August 28, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 92, with a median age of 36. Fifty-four percent were female. Among 79 ill people with available information, 30 (38%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 71 ill people who were interviewed, 50 (70%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Case Count Update
July 19, 2016

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, 24 more ill people were reported from 15 states in this outbreak.

A total of 66 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Hadar was reported from 22 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (3), Alaska (1), Arkansas (3), Colorado (3), Georgia (1), Iowa (1), Massachusetts (1), Minnesota (3), Mississippi (1), Montana (6), New Jersey (1), New York (3), North Carolina (10), North Dakota (2), Oregon (1), Pennsylvania (4), South Carolina (6), South Dakota (3), Tennessee (1), Texas (1), Virginia (7), and West Virginia (4).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 27, 2016 and June 17, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 77, with a median age of 30. Fifty-four percent were female. Among 55 ill people with available information, 20 (36%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 51 ill people who were interviewed, 44 (86%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Initial Announcement
June 2, 2016

Forty-two people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Hadar were reported from 15 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (1), Arkansas (2), Colorado (2), Georgia (1), Massachusetts (1), Montana (6), North Carolina (7), North Dakota (1), Oregon (1), Pennsylvania (4), South Carolina (6), South Dakota (1), Texas (1), Virginia (5), and West Virginia (3).

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 29 ill people who were interviewed, 27 (93%) reported contact with live poultry.

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 21, 2016 and May 6, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 77, with a median age of 30. Of ill people, 53% were female. Among the 31 ill people with available information, 11 (35%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

Outbreak 4: Salmonella Indiana Investigation

Outbreak Summary

Since the last update on July 19, 2016, 24 more ill people were reported from 13 states in this outbreak.

A total of 110 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Indiana was reported from 24 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (10), Alaska (1), Arkansas (3), California (3), Colorado (1), Delaware (1),Georgia (10), Idaho (2), Michigan (1), Minnesota (4), Mississippi (8), Montana (7), North Carolina (16), North Dakota (1), New Hampshire (1), New York (1), Ohio (1), Oregon (3), South Carolina (4), South Dakota (5), Tennessee (1), Virginia (9), Washington (3), and West Virginia (14).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 26, 2016 and June 11, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 89, with a median age of 8.5. Fifty-four percent were male. Among 85 ill people with available information, 24 (28%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 78 ill people who were interviewed, 60 (77%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Case Count Update
July 19, 2016

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, 40 more ill people were reported from 18 states in this outbreak.

A total of 86 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Indiana was reported from 20 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (10), Alaska (1), Arkansas (3), California (3), Colorado (1), Georgia (6), Idaho (2), Minnesota (1), Mississippi (4), Montana (7), North Carolina (15), North Dakota (1), New Hampshire (1), Ohio (1), Oregon (1), South Carolina (3), South Dakota (3), Virginia (9), Washington (1), and West Virginia (13).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 26, 2016 and June 11, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 87, with a median age of 7. Sixty percent were male. Among 68 ill people with available information, 19 (28%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 63 ill people who were interviewed, 51 (81%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Initial Announcement
June 2, 2016

Forty-six people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Indiana were reported from 13 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (4), Arkansas (2), California (2), Colorado (1), Georgia (2), Mississippi (1), Montana (4), North Carolina (10), North Dakota (1), South Carolina (2), South Dakota (2), Virginia (7), and West Virginia (8).

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 23 ill people who were interviewed, 18 (78%) reported contact with live poultry.

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 26, 2016 and May 9, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 87, with a median age of 7. Of ill people, 66% were male. Among the 26 ill people with available information, 7 (27%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

Outbreak 5: Salmonella Mbandaka Investigation

Outbreak Summary

Since the last update on July 19, 2016, 13 more ill people were reported from 8 states in this outbreak.

A total of 46 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Mbandaka was reported from 20 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (7), Arizona (1), Arkansas (1), Colorado (2), Illinois (2), Indiana (3), Iowa (1), Kansas (1), Kentucky (2), Maine (1), Michigan (3), New Jersey (1), North Carolina (2), Ohio (9), Oklahoma (1), Pennsylvania (2), Tennessee (1), Texas (1), Vermont (2), and Virginia (3).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 26, 2016 and August 19, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 92, with a median age of 12. Fifty-eight percent were female. Among 40 ill people with available information, 11 (28%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 40 ill people who were interviewed, 29 (73%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Case Count Update
July 19, 2016

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, 21 more ill people were reported from 13 states in this outbreak.

A total of 33 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Mbandaka was reported from 17 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (7), Arizona (1), Arkansas (1), Colorado (2), Illinois (1), Indiana (1), Iowa (1), Kansas (1), Kentucky (2), Michigan (3), North Carolina (2), Ohio (5), Oklahoma (1), Tennessee (1), Texas (1), Vermont (1), and Virginia (2).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 13, 2016 and June 10, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 92, with a median age of 5. Sixty-two percent were female. Among 29 ill people with available information, 9 (31%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 30 ill people who were interviewed, 25 (83%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Initial Announcement
June 2, 2016

Twelve people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Mbandaka were reported from seven states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (4), Arkansas (1), Indiana (1), Michigan (2), North Carolina (2), Texas (1), and Virginia (1).

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 10 ill people who were interviewed, 9 (90%) reported contact with live poultry.

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 13, 2016 and May 4, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from younger than 1 year to 92, with a median age of 11. Of ill people, 64% were female. Among the 10 ill people with available information, 2 (20%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

Outbreak 6: Salmonella Infantis Investigation

Outbreak Summary

Since the last update on July 19, 2016, 111 more ill people were reported from 33 states in this outbreak.

A total of 219 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Infantis was reported from 39 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Alabama (2), Arizona (4), California (7), Colorado (2), Connecticut (3), Georgia (4), Illinois (13), Indiana (7), Iowa (8), Kentucky (7), Louisiana (1), Maryland (5), Massachusetts (9), Michigan (2), Minnesota (21), Mississippi (4), Missouri (5), Montana (1), Nebraska (1), Nevada (1), New Hampshire (11), New Jersey (2), New York (21), North Carolina (7), North Dakota (1), Ohio (5), Oklahoma (1), Oregon (1), Pennsylvania (13), Rhode Island (3), South Carolina (4), South Dakota (5), Tennessee (1), Texas (2), Vermont (1), Virginia (9), West Virginia (3),  Wisconsin (21), and Wyoming (1).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between February 15, 2016 and September 10, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 106, with a median age of 30. Fifty percent were female. Among 180 ill people with available information, 49 (27%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 172 ill people who were interviewed, 90 (52%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Case Count Update
July 19, 2016

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, 73 more ill people were reported from 28 states in this outbreak.

A total of 108 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Infantis was reported from 30 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Arizona (1), California (1), Connecticut (1), Georgia (5), Illinois (8), Indiana (5), Iowa (3), Kentucky (5), Maryland (2), Massachusetts (3), Minnesota (11), Mississippi (3), Missouri (4), Montana (1), Nebraska (1), Nevada (1), New Hampshire (2), New Jersey (1), New York (7), North Carolina (5), North Dakota (1), Ohio (3), Pennsylvania (6), South Carolina (2), South Dakota (3), Tennessee (1), Texas (1), Virginia (9), West Virginia (2), and Wisconsin (10).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between February 19, 2016 and June 20, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 93, with a median age of 24. Fifty-one percent were female. Among 74 ill people with available information, 26 (35%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 71 ill people who were interviewed, 55 (77%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Initial Announcement
June 2, 2016

Thirty-five people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Infantis were reported from 16 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Georgia (2), Iowa (1), Illinois (4), Indiana (4), Massachusetts (1), Maryland (1), Missouri (2), North Carolina (4), New York (3), Ohio (1), Pennsylvania (4), South Carolina (1), Texas (1), Virginia (2), Wisconsin (2), and West Virginia (2).

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 18 ill people who were interviewed, 13 (72%) reported contact with live poultry.

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between February 19, 2016 and May 9, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 86, with a median age of 14. Of ill people, 56% were female. Among the 23 ill people with available information, 15 (65%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

Outbreak 7: Salmonella Braenderup Investigation

Outbreak Summary

Since the last update on July 19, 2016, 51 more ill people were reported from 20 states in this outbreak.

A total of 129 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Braenderup was reported from 25 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Arkansas (1), Alabama (1), Florida (1), Georgia (1), Illinois (1), Indiana (7), Iowa (8), Kentucky (12), Massachusetts (8), Maryland (2), Maine (2), Michigan (8), Minnesota (2), Missouri (7), New Hampshire (2), New Jersey (2), New York (29), Ohio (15), Oregon (1), Pennsylvania (2), South Carolina (1), Texas (2), Utah (3), Washington (1), and Wisconsin (10).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between January 27, 2016 and September 9, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 84, with a median age of 34. Fifty-seven percent were female. Among 105 ill people with available information, 27 (26%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 100 ill people who were interviewed, 55 (55%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Case Count Update
July 19, 2016

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, 40 more ill people were reported from 13 states in this outbreak.

A total of 78 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Braenderup was reported from 19 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Arkansas (1), Georgia (1), Illinois (1), Indiana (4), Kentucky (9), Massachusetts (6), Maryland (1), Maine (1), Michigan (4), Missouri (6), New Hampshire (2), New Jersey (1), New York (20), Ohio (10), Pennsylvania (1), Texas (1), Utah (1), Washington (1), and Wisconsin (7).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between January 27, 2016 and June 15, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 84, with a median age of 31. Fifty-eight percent were female. Among 47 ill people with available information, 12 (26%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 45 ill people who were interviewed, 35 (77%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Initial Announcement
June 2, 2016

Thirty-eight people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Braenderup were reported from 14 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: Arkansas (1), Illinois (1), Indiana (1), Kentucky (5), Massachusetts (2), Maryland (1), Michigan (3), Missouri (4), New York (8), Ohio (7), Pennsylvania (1), Texas (1), Utah (1), and Wisconsin (2).

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 24 ill people who were interviewed, 19 (79%) reported contact with live poultry.

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between January 27, 2016 and May 5, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than1 year to 84, with a median age of 34. Of ill people, 65% were female. Among the 24 ill people with available information, 7 (29%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

Outbreak 8: Salmonella Infantis Investigation

Outbreak Summary

Since the last update on July 19, 2016, 20 more ill people were reported from 13 states.

A total of 31 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Infantis were reported from 16 states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: California (2), Iowa (1), Kansas (3), Kentucky (1), Massachusetts (2), Minnesota (2), Montana (1), Nebraska (5), New York (5), Pennsylvania (1), South Dakota (2), Texas (1), Utah (1), Washington (1), West Virginia (2), and Wisconsin (1).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between March 3, 2016 and September 5, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 year to 75, with a median age of 47. Sixty percent were female. Among 24 ill people with available information, 8 (33%) were hospitalized.  Two deaths were reported; Salmonella infection was considered to be a cause of death in one person in Mississippi. Although the one person who died in New Jersey had a Salmonella infection, the infection was not considered to be a cause of death.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 24 ill people who were interviewed, 14 (58%) reported contact with live poultry.

 

Initial Announcement
July 19, 2016

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, this outbreak was identified and included in the investigation.

Eleven people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Infantis were reported from six states. The number of ill people identified in each state was as follows: California (1), Iowa (1), Kansas (3), Kentucky (1), Nebraska (4), and New York (1).

Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses began between April 6, 2016 and May 30, 2016. Ill people ranged in age from 5 years to 59, with a median age of 48. Sixty-four percent were female. Among 10 ill people with available information, 3 (30%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals in the week before they became ill. Of the 11 ill people who were interviewed, 9 (82%) reported contact with live poultry.

Previous Updates

July 19, 2016

Outbreak Summary Update

Since the last update on June 2, 2016, one more outbreak was identified, bringing the total to eight outbreaks under investigation. Another 287 ill people have been reported from 45 states for these eight outbreaks.

As of July 14, 2016, 611 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella have been reported from 45 states. A list of states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page.

Among people for whom information is available, illnesses started on dates ranging from January 4, 2016 to June 25, 2016. Ill people range in age from less than 1 year to 93, with a median age of 20. Of ill people, 52% are female. Among 496 ill people with available information, 138 (28%) reported being hospitalized, and one death was reported. Salmonella was not considered to be a cause of death.

Illnesses that started after June 16, 2016 might not be reported yet due to the time it takes between when a person becomes ill and when the illness is reported. This takes an average of 2 to 4 weeks.

Investigation Update

Epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory findings have linked the eight outbreaks to contact with live poultry such as chicks and ducklings from multiple hatcheries.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals and foods consumed during the week before becoming ill. Contact with live poultry (chicks, chickens, ducks, ducklings) in the week before becoming ill was reported by 434 of 493 ill people interviewed, or 88%.

Ill people reported purchasing live baby poultry from several suppliers, including feed supply stores, Internet sites, hatcheries, and friends in multiple states. Ill people reported purchasing live poultry to produce eggs, learn about agriculture, have as a hobby, enjoy for fun, keep as pets, or to give as Easter gifts. Some of the places ill people reported contact with live poultry include their home, someone else’s home, work, or school settings.

Public health officials collected samples from live poultry and the environments where the poultry live and roam from the homes of ill people in several states. Laboratory testing isolated four of the outbreak strains of Salmonella.

More information about each outbreak is available in the outbreak summaries below.

Initial Announcement

Introduction

CDC is collaborating with public health, veterinary, and agriculture officials in many states, as well as the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS), to investigate seven separate multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections. Results from these investigations showed that contact with live poultry in backyard flocks was the likely source of these outbreaks.

Contact with live poultry (such as chicks, chickens, ducks, and ducklings) and their environment can make people sick with Salmonella infections. Regardless of where they are purchased, live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their droppings and on their bodies (feathers, feet, and beaks) even when they appear healthy and clean. The germs can also get on cages, coops, hay, plants, and soil in the area where the birds live and roam. People, especially children, can be exposed to Salmonella by holding, cuddling, or kissing the birds and by touching things where the bird lives, such as cages or feed and water bowls.

Public health investigators are using the PulseNet system to identify illnesses that may be part of these outbreaks. PulseNet, coordinated by CDC, is the national subtyping network of public health and food regulatory agency laboratories. PulseNet performs DNA fingerprinting on Salmonella bacteria isolated from ill people by using techniques called pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). CDC PulseNet manages a national database of these DNA fingerprints to identify possible outbreaks.

Investigation of the Outbreaks

In seven separate multistate outbreaks, a total of 324 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella were reported from 35 states. Among people who reported the date they became ill, illnesses started on dates ranging from January 4, 2016 to May 11, 2016. A list of the states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page.

In interviews, ill people answered questions about contact with animals and other exposures in the week before becoming ill; 217 (91%) of the 238 people interviewed reported contact with live poultry in the week before their illness. Ill people reported purchasing live baby poultry from several different suppliers, including feed supply stores, Co-Ops, hatcheries, and friends in multiple states. Ill people reported purchasing live poultry to produce eggs, learn about agriculture, have as a hobby,enjoy for fun, keep as pets, or to give as Easter gifts. Some of the places ill people reported contact with live poultry include at their home, someone else’s home, work, or school settings.

The CDC National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) human surveillance program monitors antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and other bacteria isolated from clinical specimens submitted to NARMS by public health laboratories. CDC's NARMS laboratory conducted antibiotic-resistance testing on clinical isolates collected from three people infected with one of the seven outbreak strains. All three isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. CDC's NARMS laboratory continues to conduct antibiotic-resistance testing on additional clinical isolates collected from ill persons infected with one of the outbreak strains. Results will be reported when they become available.

NARMS is a U.S. public health surveillance system that tracks antibiotic resistance in foodborne and other enteric bacteria found in people, raw meat and poultry, and food-producing animals. NARMS is a partnership among the CDC, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and state and local health departments.

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