Module 3: Introduction to Surveillance Approaches
By the end of this module, participants will be able to:
- describe population coverage as used in surveillance of congenital anomalies;
- describe population-based surveillance;
- describe hospital-based surveillance;
- compare and contrast population-based surveillance versus hospital-based surveillance;
- describe the three types of case ascertainment;
- describe the advantages and disadvantages of active and passive case ascertainment;
- describe case-finding in congenital anomalies surveillance;
- identify the differences between a single data source and multiple data sources;
- describe considerations for inclusion criteria used in the surveillance of congenital anomalies;
- identify the congenital anomalies to include in the programme;
- describe considerations for inclusion of particular congenital anomalies;
- describe how data can be used for decision-making;
- identify considerations for communicating and disseminating surveillance data;
- identify different communication methods;
- identify variables that will reflect the objectives of the programme;
- describe core variables;
- describe additional variables;
- identify sources to collect variables;
- understand the elements of quality and value in congenital anomalies surveillance;
- recognize the importance of shared procedures and protocols;
- identify selected processes and data elements that can be tracked for ongoing quality improvement;
- understand the meaning of birth prevalence;
- compute birth prevalence;
- comment on data that are similar to those presented in the exercises.
Note: This module is linked to Chapter 3 of WHO/CDC/ICBDSR Birth defects surveillance: a manual for programme managers.
Evaluation Questions 3
- Define population-based and hospital-based surveillance programmes.
- Why are prevalence estimates drawn from hospital-based surveillance programmes less likely to be accurate?
- What are some factors to consider when deciding whether to implement a population-based or hospital-based surveillance programme in a country?
- Which of the following is NOT a type of case ascertainment method?
- Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of passive case ascertainment?
- True or false: Using a single data source may improve data quality.
- True or false: New, smaller programmes should consider starting with a small number of easily recognizable, major external congenital anomalies and then expand to include additional anomalies as the programme gains experience, creates awareness and is assigned more resources.
- List some differences between the two methods for describing congenital anomalies in the data-collection process.
- True or false: Inclusion of live births alone is a significant limitation that can lead to unreliable rates and trends, particularly for conditions with a high rate of loss prior to 28 weeks.
- Define stillbirth according to WHO.
- Which is an advantage of paper-based collection methods?
- True or false: Incidence is usually used to describe the occurrence of congenital anomalies.
- Define prevalence.
- True or false: The three top attributes of data quality are timeliness, accuracy and completeness.
Page last reviewed: October 31, 2018