Appendices

Appendix K: Prevalence of selected anomalies by surveillance programme during 2004–2008

 

Prevalence per 10 000 births

Prevalence per 10 000 births
Surveillance programme (alphabetical order) Anencephaly Spina bifida without anencephaly Encephalocele Cleft palate without cleft lip Cleft lip with or without cleft palate Limb defects Hypospadias Omphalocele Gastroschisis
Australia Victoria 5.20 5.73 1.58 7.99 10.13 6.23 38.45 3.32 2.20
Australia Western 5.71 6.83 1.62 8.60 12.33 7.19 31.70 3.80 3.95
Canada Alberta 2.07 4.10 1.15 6.93 12.75 10.72 21.62 2.78 4.90
Canada British Columbia 1.18 2.97 0.33 8.62 7.49 3.63 22.56 2.35 4.66
Canada National 0.90 2.81 0.52 6.89 9.17 3.46 26.28 2.08 4.00
Chile Maule 1.80 1.65 1.20 3.76 10.68 3.91 7.97 1.80 2.11
China Beijing 2.47 1.73 0.91 1.92 9.18 2.51 0.52 0.91 1.43
China CBDMNa 2.58 5.26 1.46 2.86 13.49 4.82 4.74 1.46 2.43
Costa Rica 1.32 2.95 0.74 2.75 7.00 4.57 6.80 1.13 1.85
Cuba 3.98 5.12 1.60 1.67 4.49 2.27 9.41 2.16 5.35
Czech Republic 2.60 3.82 1.77 7.78 10.90 6.54 32.42 2.72 3.05
Finland 3.10 4.53 1.84 13.97 11.28 7.02 3.71 5.48 3.10
France Paris 5.24 4.35 2.40 6.25 8.83 6.37 15.46 5.68 1.96
France REMERAb 2.76 5.43 1.41 4.85 8.48 5.81 11.32 3.21 1.75
France Strasbourg 4.58 7.26 0.79 8.21 10.42 8.37 18.84 1.57 1.58
Germany Saxony Anhalt 2.53 6.56 1.04 9.21 14.28 7.60 8.29 3.68 5.07
Hungary 1.89 4.07 0.55 4.05 7.65 3.60 26.83 1.32 1.04
India 13.39 11.48 3.90 1.79 5.57 6.22 1.85 2.36 0.63
Iran TRoCAc 12.82 1.18 1.57 4.12 5.53 23.41 10.59 0.71 nr
Ireland Dublin 2.44 2.61 1.22 7.25 7.82 3.58 11.49 2.59 3.10
Israel IBDSPd 1.74 3.28 0.56 3.84 4.25 2.00 33.40 0.77 0.20
Italy Campania 3.41 3.56 1.01 6.15 7.38 4.48 3.28 1.67 0.19
Italy Emilia Romagna 2.02 3.08 0.85 4.46 6.84 5.57 14.70 1.96 1.27
Italy ISMACe 1.51 2.26 0.25 4.52 4.02 2.76 20.83 nr 0.50
Italy North East 1.30 2.79 0.28 7.43 8.36 3.95 18.43 1.24 0.84
Italy Tuscany 1.73 2.99 0.80 3.65 4.91 4.91 8.50 1.86 1.06
Japan JAOGf 1.10 4.96 0.69 4.73 21.09 3.37 4.06 3.89 2.61
Malta 1.52 7.58 2.02 16.17 10.11 6.57 33.36 3.03 1.01
Mexico RYVEMCEg 4.70 6.26 1.57 2.97 13.76 6.34 3.62 1.89 5.19
New Zealand 0.36 2.24 0.56 8.44 6.85 2.31 27.52 4.17 nr
Northern Netherlands 1.53 5.36 0.44 7.00 13.56 5.80 23.29 1.86 1.09
Norway 3.85 5.53 1.01 7.22 13.26 4.55 14.40 2.56 3.27
Russia Moscow 2.77 4.00 0.96 4.48 5.88 2.60 13.75 2.09 3.63
Slovak Republic 0.76 2.40 0.80 4.80 8.18 3.35 20.30 0.58 0.87
South America ECLAMCh 5.43 9.13 2.91 5.06 13.70 8.11 6.27 4.28 6.43
Spain ECEMCi 0.31 1.02 0.21 3.82 3.59 4.45 1.61 0.52 0.63
Sweden 3.53 4.34 1.24 5.58 8.22 4.77 21.33 2.62 1.61
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK), England and 2.68 2.64 0.60 3.24 5.50 3.10 8.70 1.06 2.88
UK, England Wessex 5.30 4.36 1.37 8.47 13.77 1.54 7.78 3.85 4.70
UK, Wales 5.25 6.73 2.01 9.09 11.33 8.50 28.45 4.01 6.85
Ukraine 8.64 10.66 2.09 5.30 8.08 3.48 3.14 1.60 1.60
USA Atlanta 2.46 3.90 1.14 4.96 9.77 3.90 6.06 1.95 4.37
USA Texas 2.35 3.75 0.88 5.64 10.91 5.45 15.83 2.01 5.45
USA Utah 2.43 4.60 0.86 6.85 12.49 6.55 8.57 2.54 5.50
Median 2.50 4.09 1.02 5.44 9.00 4.67 12.62 2.09 2.32
Interquartile range lower 1.68 2.91 0.73 4.00 6.96 3.48 6.67 1.59 1.14
Interquartile range upper 4.13 5.46 1.57 7.51 11.58 6.41 21.86 3.12 4.28

 

Note: the table gives an idea of variation of the total prevalence among various programmes. The variation may be due to a real prevalence variation, a different frequency of risk factors in the population, or under-registration or over-registration.
a CBDMB = Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network.
b REMERA = Registre Des Malformations en Rhone Alpes.
c TRoCA = Tabriz Registry of Congenital Anomalies.
d IBDSP = Israel Birth Defects Surveillance Program.
e ISMAC = Sicilian Registry of Congenital Malformations.
f JAOG = Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
g RYVEMCE = Mexican Registry and Epidemiological Surveillance of External Congenital Malformations.
h ECLAMC = Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations.
i ECEMC = Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations.
nr = not reported.

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