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1.3 Types of Surveillance Programmes

Surveillance programmes can be population based or hospital/facility based and can use active or passive case ascertainment, or can be a hybrid of the two. More information about types of programmes and case ascertainment can be found in Chapter 3.

Population-Based

Population-based congenital anomalies surveillance programmes capture birth outcomes with congenital anomalies that occur among a population that is resident in a defined geographical area.

Hospital- or Facility-Based

Hospital- or facility-based congenital anomalies surveillance programmes capture birth outcomes with congenital anomalies that occur in selected facilities. Sentinel congenital anomalies surveillance programmes are generally set up in one or a few facilities/hospitals, to obtain rapid estimates of the occurrence of an adverse birth outcome.

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