2.1 Logic Models
Expected time: 2.5 hours
Logic models can be helpful tools when planning, implementing and evaluating congenital anomalies surveillance programmes. Logic models are graphic representations of how a surveillance programme will work. Logic models can not only identify resources that are available and those that are needed, but also identify potential activities and outcomes. Logic models can outline the order in which these activities would occur, and how the outcomes would be achieved.
Most logic models will include the following components: resources, activities, outputs, outcomes and impact.
- Resources: What resources currently exist? What resources are needed?
- Activities: What activities are required for the surveillance programme to function (purpose and reasons needed)? The activities will differ depending on the intended audience. For example, one activity can be to identify partners, while another could be training hospital staff on how to collect data.
- Outputs: What are the expected outputs that will result from the activities (e.g. training programmes, tangible products)?
- Outcomes: What are the short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes for the programme (e.g. benefits for the population, improvement of health)?
- Impact: What is the impact that you want the programme to ultimately have?
Improving Quality of Life
- Identifying gaps in services
- Increasing the number of services available
For examples of information to include in a logic model, please refer to Appendix D in WHO/CDC/ICBDSR Birth defects surveillance: a manual for programme managers (4).
Consider the resources and activities needed for developing a congenital anomalies surveillance program for your country. List them using the Activity 2.1 worksheet in the Participant Workbookpdf icon. Then also list the outputs, outcomes, and impact from accomplishing programme activities.
Example logic model for developing a congenital anomalies surveillance programme
|Resources||Activities||Outputs||Short-and long-term outcomes||Impact|
|Need the following resources in order to accomplish activities:||Need to accomplish the following activities in order to address the problem:||Once activities are accomplished, expect to have the following product(s) or services:||If activities are accomplished, they will lead to the following changes in 1–3 years:||If activities are accomplished, they will lead to the following changes in 4–6 years:|
- World Health Organization. Congenital anomalies. Fact sheet No 370. October 2012 (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs370/en/index.htmlexternal icon, accessed 29 April 2015).
- Resolution WHA63.17. Birth defects. In: Sixty-third World Health Assembly, Geneva,17–21 May 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010 (http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA63/A63_R17-en.pdfpdf iconexternal icon, accessed 29 April 2015).
- International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision. Geneva: World Health organization; 2015 (http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2015/enexternal icon, accessed 24 February 2015).
- World Health Organization, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). Birth defects surveillance: a manual for programme managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 (https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefectscount/documents/bd-surveillance-manual.pdfpdf icon, accessed 10 February 2015).
- World Health Organization, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). Birth defects surveillance: atlas of selected congenital anomalies. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 (http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/127941/1/9789241564762_eng.pdf?ua=1pdf iconexternal icon, accessed 10 February 2015).
- CDC Foundation. What is public health? (http://www.cdcfoundation.org/content/what-public-healthexternal icon, accessed 24 February 2015).