2.1 Logic Models

Expected time: 2.5 hours

Logic models can be helpful tools when planning, implementing and evaluating congenital anomalies surveillance programmes. Logic models are graphic representations of how a surveillance programme will work. Logic models can not only identify resources that are available and those that are needed, but also identify potential activities and outcomes. Logic models can outline the order in which these activities would occur, and how the outcomes would be achieved.

Most logic models will include the following components: resources, activities, outputs, outcomes and impact.

  • Resources: What resources currently exist? What resources are needed?
  • Activities: What activities are required for the surveillance programme to function (purpose and reasons needed)? The activities will differ depending on the intended audience. For example, one activity can be to identify partners, while another could be training hospital staff on how to collect data.
  • Outputs: What are the expected outputs that will result from the activities (e.g. training programmes, tangible products)?
  • Outcomes: What are the short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes for the programme (e.g. benefits for the population, improvement of health)?
  • Impact: What is the impact that you want the programme to ultimately have?

Improving Quality of Life

Possible responses:

  • Identifying gaps in services
  • Increasing the number of services available

For examples of information to include in a logic model, please refer to Appendix D in WHO/CDC/ICBDSR Birth defects surveillance: a manual for programme managers (4).

Activity 2.1

Consider the resources and activities needed for developing a congenital anomalies surveillance program for your country. List them using the Activity 2.1 worksheet in the Participant WorkbookCdc-pdf. Then also list the outputs, outcomes, and impact from accomplishing programme activities.

Example logic model for developing a congenital anomalies surveillance programme
Example logic model for developing a congenital anomalies surveillance programme
Resources Activities Outputs Short-and long-term outcomes Impact
Need the following resources in order to accomplish activities: Need to accomplish the following activities in order to address the problem: Once activities are accomplished, expect to have the following product(s) or services: If activities are accomplished, they will lead to the following changes in 1–3 years: If activities are accomplished, they will lead to the following changes in 4–6 years:
  • Staff with the necessary skills
  • Funding
  • Infrastructure
  • Partnerships
  • Leadership support
  • Legislative support
  • Tools for data collection and analysis
  • Identification of existing resources and anticipation of needed resources
  • Identification of champions
  • Develop surveillance system
  • Identify goals
  • Develop and distribute baseline survey for situational analysis report
  • Identify appropriate stakeholders
  • Select sites
  • Develop and implement surveillance protocol with uniform guidelines
  • Establish pilot for congenital anomalies surveillance
  • Assess data quality and utility
  • Engage partners
  • Create task force
  • Advocate
  • Establish evaluation and monitoring for each step of the programme
  • Implement surveillance system
  • Produce reports and recommendations
  • Create an upgradeable model surveillance programme
  • Identify risk factors and prevent those congenital anomalies that have modifiable ones
  • Uniform national implementation of a surveillance programme
  • Enhancement of knowledge
  • Provision of data to develop policies
  • Improvement of necessary infrastructure to manage congenital anomalies
  • Improved quality of life for affected individuals and their families
  • Reduction in mortality in children aged under 5 years
  • Reduction in preventable congenital anomalies
References
  1. World Health Organization. Congenital anomalies. Fact sheet No 370. October 2012 (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs370/en/index.htmlExternal, accessed 29 April 2015).
  2. Resolution WHA63.17. Birth defects. In: Sixty-third World Health Assembly, Geneva,17–21 May 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010 (http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA63/A63_R17-en.pdfCdc-pdfExternal, accessed 29 April 2015).
  3. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision. Geneva: World Health organization; 2015 (http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2015/enExternal, accessed 24 February 2015).
  4. World Health Organization, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). Birth defects surveillance: a manual for programme managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 (https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefectscount/documents/bd-surveillance-manual.pdfCdc-pdf, accessed 10 February 2015).
  5. World Health Organization, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). Birth defects surveillance: atlas of selected congenital anomalies. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 (http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/127941/1/9789241564762_eng.pdf?ua=1Cdc-pdfExternal, accessed 10 February 2015).
  6. CDC Foundation. What is public health? (http://www.cdcfoundation.org/content/what-public-healthExternal, accessed 24 February 2015).