2.1 Logic Models

Logic Models

One approach that can be helpful when planning, implementing and evaluating a congenital anomalies surveillance programme is the use of logic models. A logic model is a graphic representation of how the surveillance programme will work. Logic models can identify what activities are needed, the order in which they would occur, and how the outcomes are going to be achieved.

Most often, logic models will include the following components:

  • Resources: what resources currently exist? What resources will be required to build or expand a surveillance programme?
  • Activities: what activities are required for the surveillance programme to function? Keep in mind that there might be more than one intended audience.
  • Outputs: what are the expected outputs that will result from the activities?
  • Expectations: what are the short-term, intermediate, and long-term expectations (or outcomes) for each programme area?

Logic models can have any shape (i.e. round, linear, columnar or a combination of these), and have any level of detail (i.e. simple, moderate or complex). It is probably best to begin by placing all relevant information into a table format (see Table 2.1) and then develop a logic model based on that information (see Fig. 2.1).

Creating a logic model has benefits. It can help define goals and objectives, as well as foster agreements among stakeholders about roles and responsibilities related to different activities. It can also help to identify gaps or barriers and build connections between activities and results. Please refer to Appendix D for another example of a logic model.

Table 2.1. Sample information to include in a logic model

Resources Activities Outputs Short-and long-term outcomes Impact
Funding sources 1. Develop surveillance system Institute surveillance system Uniform nationwide implementation of the surveillance programme Improved quality of life for affected individuals
Infrastructure 1a. Identify goals Produce reports and recommendations Enhance knowledge Reduction in mortality in children aged less than 5 years
Programme manager and staff 1b. Develop and distribute baseline survey for situation analysis report Create an upgradeable model surveillance programme Develop policies Reduction in the prevalence of preventable congenital anomalies
Partner government/
1c. Identify appropriate stakeholders Identify modifiable risk factors Improve need-based infrastructure to manage congenital anomalies
Hospital champions 1d. Select sites
Legislative support to collect data 1e. Develop and implement surveillance protocol with uniform guidelines
Tools for data collection and analysis 1f. Establish pilot for surveillance of congenital anomalies
1g. Assess data quality and utility
2. Engage partners
2a. Create task force
2b. Advocate
3. Evaluate and monitor
Adapted from: India team, Regional Workshop on Birth Defects Surveillance; Colombo, Sri Lanka, April 2012.


Fig. 2.1. Logic model for surveillance of congenital anomalies
Fig. 2.1. Logic model for surveillance of congenital anomalies

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