Valley Fever Awareness

Valley fever is a fungal lung infection that can be devastating. Learning about Valley fever can help you and your doctor recognize the symptoms early.

Valley fever is an infection caused by a fungus that lives in the soil. About 10,000 cases are reported in the United States each year, mostly from Arizona and California. Valley fever can be misdiagnosed because its symptoms are similar to those of other illnesses. Here are some important things to know about Valley fever, also called coccidioidomycosis.

Coccidioidomycosis, also called valley fever, is an illness caused by a fungus that is common in some parts of the United States. Here’s what you need to know about valley fever.

From soil to lungs

The fungus that causes Valley fever, Coccidioides, is found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico and Central America, and parts of South America. The fungus has also been found in south-central Washington state. It probably lives in other areas in the western United States. People can get Valley fever by breathing in the microscopic fungus from the air in these areas. Valley fever does not spread from person to person.

Common symptoms may lead to delayed diagnosis

Many people who are exposed to the fungus never have symptoms. Other people may have symptoms that include:

  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Headache
  • Night sweats
  • Muscle aches or joint pain
  • Rash on upper body or legs

The symptoms of Valley fever can be similar to those of other common illnesses, which may cause delays in getting patients correctly diagnosed and treated. For many people, symptoms go away without any treatment, after weeks or months, but healthcare providers prescribe antifungal medicine for some people to try to reduce symptoms or prevent the infection from getting worse. People who have severe lung infections or infections that have spread to other parts of the body always need antifungal treatment and may need to stay in the hospital.

Areas where Valley fever lives in the US.
Estimated areas with coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever)

This map shows CDC's current estimate of where the fungus that causes coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) live in the environment in the United States. The fungus is not distributed evenly in the shaded areas, might not be present everywhere in the shaded areas, and can also be outside the shaded areas. Darker shading shows areas where Coccidioides is more likely to live. Diagonal shading shows the potential range of Coccidioides.

People at risk

Anyone who lives in or travels to an area where the fungus lives in the environment can get Valley fever. Valley fever can affect people of any age, but it’s most common in adults aged 60 and older. Additionally, certain groups of people may be at higher risk for developing the severe forms of Valley fever, such as:

Valley fever is a serious, costly illness
  • Nearly 75% of people with Valley fever miss work or school
  • As many as 40% of people who get Valley fever are hospitalized
  • The average cost of a hospital stay for a person with Valley fever is almost $50,000

Awareness is key

In areas where Valley fever is common, it’s difficult to completely avoid exposure to the fungus because it is in the environment. There is no vaccine to prevent infection. That’s why knowing about Valley fever is one of the most important ways to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. People who have Valley fever symptoms and live in or have visited an area where the fungus is common should ask their doctor to test them for Valley fever. Healthcare providers should be aware that Valley fever symptoms are similar to those of other respiratory illnesses and should consider testing for Valley fever in patients with pneumonia symptoms who live in or have traveled to an area where Coccidioides lives.

What CDC is doing

  • Raising awareness. CDC, state and local health departments, and other agencies are working together to educate the public and healthcare providers about Valley fever to reduce delays in diagnosis and treatment and to improve people’s health.
  • Surveillance. In many states, healthcare providers and laboratories are required to report Valley fever cases to public health authorities. Disease reporting allows government officials to monitor trends in Valley fever cases.
  • Advanced molecular detection. CDC has been developing new tools that make it faster and easier to detect Coccidioides in the environment. CDC is also using whole genome sequencing on environmental and patient samples to investigate new areas where Coccidioides is living and causing illness.
  • Researching diagnosis and treatment. CDC is studying new tests to diagnose Valley fever faster and is assisting other health agencies with studies to understand the best treatment for Valley fever.
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Join CDC in sharing information to increase awareness in your community about fungal diseases during Fungal Disease Awareness Week, September 20-24, 2021.