Other Fungal Diseases


  • An infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides, which lives in parts of Central and South America.
  • Most often affects men who work outdoors in rural areas.
  • More about paracoccidioidomycosis


  • An infection caused by the fungus Talaromyces marneffei, previously known as Penicillium marneffei.
  • Only affects people who live in or visit Southeast Asia, southern China, or eastern India.
  • Most people who get this infection already have a medical condition that weakens their immune system, such as HIV or another condition that lowers the body’s ability to fight germs and sickness. More about talaromycosis
Rare Fungal Diseases in the United States

These fungal diseases are not common in the United States but are important public health problems in other areas of the world. They can cause severe symptoms and can be misdiagnosed.


  • A fungal infection of the skin that develops over weeks or months. It usually begins when a fungus gets into or under the skin through a cut or scrape.
  • Mostly reported in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia, Africa, and Australia.1, 2
  • Begins as a pinkish bump on the skin that gradually worsens until becoming a lesion. Without treatment, the lesion will worsen and grow, and more lesions could appear in other places.1 These lesions can be warty, tumor-like, or form open wounds.2
  • Most people who get this infection are men in their thirties or forties. People who work outdoors in rural areas are most at risk, particularly people who work on farms, lumberjacks, and people who sell farm products.1, 2
  • Was added to the World Health Organization’s list of neglected tropical diseasesexternal icon in 2017.
  • Resembles infection by Nocardia species and can be misdiagnosed if a biopsy is not performed.


  • This disease and the fungi that cause it were recently renamed, and scientists are still learning more about these fungi.
  • It has affected people in four continents: Asia, Europe, Africa and North America.3
  • People can get this disease after breathing in the microscopic fungal spores from the air.3
  • Most people who get this disease have a weakened immune system, especially people living with HIV.3
  • Can be misdiagnosed as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, sporotrichosis, or blastomycosis.3


  • This disease is caused by a range of different fungi in the genus Fusarium.
  • The infection typically affects eyes, skin, or nails. In some patients, symptoms can include fever, cough, and chest pain.4
  • Infections may start in one area and later spread to other parts of the body. People with a weakened immune system are more at risk for widespread infections.4
  • These fungi are naturally resistant to certain antifungal medications called echinocandins, making infections difficult to treat.4


  • Caused by fungi in the genus Scedosporium and Lomentospora prolificans.
  • S. apiospermum lives in water, and infections are often associated with near-drowning events. Healthcare providers should monitor near-drowning patients for several weeks for neurological symptoms.5 The infection typically affects the lungs, the skin, and soft tissue.
  • Lomentospora lives in soil, and infections affect the lungs, especially in people with cystic fibrosis.5
  • People who have a weakened immune system, such as transplant recipients, are at risk for severe infections.
  • Both Scedosporium and Lomentospora are resistant to most antifungal medicines.
Infections caused by organisms similar to fungi


  • Caused by microsporidia, a group of tiny organisms that are closely related to fungi.6
  • Many domestic and wild animals, including cats, dogs, and cattle, may be naturally infected with microsporidia.6
  • Most people who get this disease have a weakened immune system.6
  • Symptoms vary based on the species of microsporidia and the route of infection.6
  • For more information, see CDC’s page on the diagnosis of microsporidia


  • Caused by Prototheca, a type of algae (a plant) that does not have chlorophyll.
  • This organism lives in the environment, such as in soil or water.
  • Infections can occur when contaminated water or soil gets into the skin through a cut or scrape. Hospital-acquired cases have been reported after surgery.7
  • Some people might be infected and not show symptoms right away.7
  • Dogs, cattle, and deer may also become infected with this disease.7


  • Caused by Pythium insidiosum, an oomycete. Oomycetes, which are sometimes called water molds, live in tropical, subtropical, and temperate countries.
  • Most cases have been reported from Thailand, but cases have also occurred in the United States.8
  • This organism mostly affects dogs or horses, but it can infect humans.
  • People who work in agriculture are at risk of becoming infected.8
  • This organism enters the body through the skin and can cause an infection in the legs or eyes.8


  • Caused by Rhinosporodium seeberi, a protozoan.
  • Infections have been reported in India and other tropical areas.
  • The organism can grow in stagnant water such as ponds, tanks, and wells.9
  • People who farm, work with animals, or swim in untreated water are at risk of becoming infected.9
  • The organism can also infect primates and livestock.
  • Infections commonly affect the nose, eyelids, and mouth.9
  1. Queiroz-Telles F. Chromoblastomycosis: A Neglected Tropical Diseaseexternal icon. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. 2015;57(Suppl 19):46-50.
  2. Krzyściak PM, Pindycka-Piaszczyńska M, Piaszczyński M. Chromoblastomycosisexternal icon. Advances in Dermatology and Allergology/Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii. 2014;31(5):310-321.
  3. Samaddar A, Sharma A. Emergomycosis, An Emerging Systemic Mycosis in Immunocompromised Patients: Current Trends and Future Prospectsexternal icon. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;8:670731.
  4. Batista BG, Chaves MA, Reginatto P, Saraiva OJ, Fuentefria AM. Human Fusariosis: An Emerging Infection That is Difficult to Treatexternal icon. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 2020;53.
  5. Cortez KJ, Roilides E, Quiroz-Telles F, Meletiadis J, Antachopoulos C, Knudsen T, et al. Infections Caused by Scedosporium sppexternal icon. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2008;21(1):157-197.
  6. Han B, Weiss LM. Microsporidia: Obligate Intracellular Pathogens Within the Fungal Kingdomexternal icon. Microbiol Spectr. 2017;5(2):10.
  7. Lass-Flörl C, Mayr A. Human Protothecosisexternal icon. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2007;20(2):230-242.
  8. Chitasombat MN, Jongkhajornpong P, Lekhanont K, Krajaejun T. Recent Update in Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Pythiosisexternal icon. PeerJ. 2020;8:e8555.
  9. Gupta RK, Singh BP, Singh BR. Rhinosporidiosis in Central India: A Cross-sectional Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chhattisgarhexternal icon. Tropical Parasitology. 2020;10(2):120-123.