Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Mycotic Diseases Branch

CDC's lead group for the prevention and control of fungal infections in the United States and internationally through epidemiological and microbiological studies to improve the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of mycotic diseases.

About Us

CDC’s Mycotic Disease Branch (MDB) is dedicated to preventing death and disability due to fungal diseases . As one of the only public health groups in the world devoted specifically to the prevention and control of fungal infections, MDB works with domestic and international partners to determine the burden of fungal infections, respond to outbreaks, and to address public health problems related to fungal infections.

Fungal diseases are a concern in the medical and public health community for several reasons [PDF - 2 pages] :

  • Increasing number of people with weakened immune systems. Opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are becoming more problematic as the number with weakened immune systems rises – this includes cancer patients, organ transplant recipients, and people with HIV/AIDS.
  • Advancements and changes in healthcare practices. Hospital-associated infections such as candidemia, a fungal bloodstream infection, are a major concern in the US. Advancements and changes in healthcare practices can provide opportunities for new and drug-resistant fungi to emerge in healthcare settings.
  • Changes in the environment. Many fungal diseases, such as coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) and histoplasmosis, are caused by fungi that live in soil or other parts of the natural environment. Weather and climate changes may be affecting these types of fungi.

Mycotic Diseases Branch Teams

Our Branch is composed of three teams. Epidemiology and laboratory staff members work together to generate new information about the burden of fungal diseases and disease-causing fungi, detect and identify fungi in clinical samples, investigate the source of fungal outbreaks, conduct applied public health research, and provide training in the identification of medically important fungi.

	Fungal Meningitis Outbreak TeamThe Fungal Epidemiology Team works to prevent disease and disability due to fungi by determining the burden of fungal infections, using available evidence to promote education and awareness of fungal diseases, address gaps in knowledge about prevention of fungal diseases, and work with domestic and international partners to provide response and support for fungal public health issues.

We respond to outbreaks; monitor long term fungal disease trends; develop, evaluate, and promote cost-effective prevention guidelines and intervention strategies; and help prepare healthcare facilities and laboratories in resource-limited countries to better detect fungal diseases.

	CDC scientist Carol Bolden examines microscopic slides showing Exserohilum rostratum (on screen) during the multistate meningitis outbreak.The Fungal Service Team contributes to the prevention and control of fungal infections by facilitating detection, identification, and characterization of human fungal pathogens.

The Fungal Reference Laboratory uses conventional and molecular methods to identify fungal isolates. We accept specimens from US state and international public health laboratories. Click here for specimen submission information . We conduct a yearly Mold Identification Training Course in collaboration with the Association of Public Health Laboratories. Click here for information about our course .

The Antifungal Testing Laboratory performs antifungal susceptibility testing on special populations of fungal isolates. We conduct surveillance studies to look for the presence and the proportions of fungal organisms that are resistant to antifungal drugs. We participate in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing and help evaluate various aspects of antifungal drug testing methods.

The Fungal Serology Laboratory uses antibody-based testing to detect exposure to fungal pathogens. We also conduct research into novel serologic testing methods.

	CDC scientist Christina Scheel processes spinal fluid samples for molecular testing during the multistate meningitis outbreakThe Fungal Research Team contributes to the prevention and control of fungal infections by performing research on the molecular epidemiology of fungal infections, novel detection and diagnostic methods, and fungal molecular subtyping. This work allows us to incorporate and translate the newest research findings in the biology of human fungal pathogens to public health mycology. Some of our current work involves:

  • Detection of fungi in the environment
  • Detection of fungi in human specimens
  • Producing a curated DNA sequence database for fungal identification
  • Performing molecular epidemiology studies
  • Collaborating in whole-genome sequencing projects for several fungal pathogens
 Top of Page

Fungal Disease Outbreaks

When fungal disease outbreaks occur, our branch works with federal, state, local and territorial, and international public health officials and other partners to determine the cause, reduce illness and deaths, and to learn how to prevent future outbreaks. With systems in place for early identification for these types of events, our branch and its partners can continue to track, test for, respond to, and better understand emerging fungal health threats. Click here to learn more about recent fungal disease outbreaks.

Click here to learn more about recent fungal disease outbreaks .

International Activities

Our branch has assisted in the onsite development, execution, analysis, and publication of numerous studies all over the globe. We work with many international partners in a wide variety of areas, particularly with the assessment and prevention of opportunistic fungal infections among persons with HIV/AIDS. For example, we are working with public health and healthcare agencies in several countries to implement programs that aim to reduce the burden of cryptococcal disease.

For more information about our international work, please visit our Global Fungal Diseases web page.

Below is a map of some of the places we’ve worked during the last 5 years:

	World Map


Sharing scientific findings is an important part of the prevention and control of fungal diseases. Our branch is involved in producing numerous articles and papers which detail our research findings and investigations.

Key publications by year





Baddley JW, Andes DR, Marr KA, et al. Antifungal therapy and length of hospitalization in transplant patient with invasive aspergillosis . Med Mycol 2013; 51(2): 128-35.

Balajee SA, Hurst SF, Chang LS, et al. Multilocus sequence typing of Histoplasma capsulatum in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from cats living in non-endemic regions reveals a new phylogenetic
. Med Mycol 2013; 51(4): 345-51.

Brandt ME, Park. BJ. Think fungus–prevention and control of fungal infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19(10): 1688-9. Podcast:

Brown J, Benedict K, Park BJ, Thompson GR, 3rd. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology . Clin Epidemiol 2013;5: 185-97.

Castrodale LJ, Gerlach RF, Preziosi DE, Frederickson P, Lockhart SR. Prolonged incubation period for infection with Cryptococcus gattii in an Alaska cat originally from California, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19: 1034-1035.

CDC. Histoplasmosis in a state where it is not known to be endemic - Montana, 2012-2013 . MMWR 2013; 62(42): 834-7.

CDC. Increase in reported coccidioidomycosis--United States, 1998-2011 . MMWR 2013; 62(12): 217-21.

Chiller TM, Roy M, Nguyen D, et al. Clinical findings for fungal infections caused by methylprednisolone injections .  N Engl J Med 2013; 369(17): 1610-9.

Escandon P, Lizarazo J, Agudelo CI, Chiller T, Castaneda E. Evaluation of a rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of cryptococcal antigen for the early diagnosis of cryptococcosis in HIV patients in Colombia . Med Mycol 2013; S1:765-768.

Espinel-Ingroff A, Arendrup MC, Pfaller MA, et al. Interlaboratory variability of caspofungin MICs for Candida species using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57:5836-5842.

Fagan RP, Edwards JR, Park BJ, Fridkin SK, Magill SS. Incidence trends in pathogen-specific central line-associated bloodstream infections in US intensive care units, 1990-2010. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34(9).

Fanfair RN, Heslop O, Etienne K, et al.  Trichosporon asahii among intensive care unit patients at a medical center in Jamaica. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013; 34(6): 638-41.

Farooqi JQ, Jabeen K, Saeed N, et al. Invasive candidiasis in Pakistan: clinical characteristics, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility. J Med Microbiol 2013; 62(Pt 2): 259-68.

Gade L, Scheel CM, Pham CD, et al. Detection of fungal DNA in human body fluids and tissues during a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections. Eukaryot Cell 2013; 12(5): 677-83.

Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Sondermeyer G, et al. Cryptococcus gattii infections in multiple states outside the US Pacific Northwest. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19(10): 1621-7.

Kunadharaju R, Choe U, Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Greene JN. Cryptococcus gattii, Florida, USA, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19(3): 519-21.

Lockhart SR, Iqbal N, Harris JR, et al. Cryptococcus gattii in the United States: Genotypic diversity of human and veterinary isolates. PloS one 2013; 8(9): e74737.

Lockhart SR, Pham CD, Gade L, et al. Preliminary laboratory report of fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections . J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51(8): 2654-61.

Loyse A, Thangaraj H, Easterbrook P, et al. Cryptococcal meningitis: improving access to essential antifungal medicines in resource-poor countries . Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13(7): 629-37.

Marsden-Haug N, Goldoft M, Ralston C, et al. Coccidioidomycosis acquired in Washington State . Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56(6): 847-50.

Morrison AS, Lockhart SR, Bromley JG, Kim JY, Burd EM. An environmental Sporothrix as a cause of corneal ulcer. Med Mycol Case Reports 2013; 2: 88-90.

Mortenson JA, Bartlett KH, Wilson RW, Lockhart SR. Detection of Cryptococcus gattii in Selected Urban Parks of the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Mycopathologia 2013; 175:351-355.

Nacher M, Adenis A, McDonald S, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients in South America: a neglected killer continues on its rampage. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013; 7:e2319.

Pappas PG, Kontoyiannis DP, Perfect JR, Chiller TM. Real-time treatment guidelines: considerations during the Exserohilum rostratum outbreak in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57(4): 1573-6.

Pham CD, Bolden CB, Kuykendall RJ, Lockhart SR. Development of a Luminex-Based Multiplex Assay for Detection of Mutations Conferring Resistance to Echinocandins in Candida glabrata. J Clin Microbiol 2013.

Prandini TH, Theodoro RC, Bruder-Nascimento AC, Scheel CM, Bagagli E. Analysis of inteins in the Candida parapsilosis complex for simple and accurate species identification. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51:2830-2836.

Purfield A, Ahmad N, Park BJ, et al. Epidemiology of commercial rhesus monkey kidney cells contaminated with Coccidioides posadasii. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51(6): 2005.

Ritter JM, Muehlenbachs A, Blau DM, et al. Exserohilum infections associated with contaminated steroid injections: a clinicopathologic review of 40 cases. Am J Pathol 2013; 183(3): 881-92.

Rosado-Odom VM, Daoud J, Johnson R, et al. Cutaneous presentation of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis nine years after renal transplantation . Transpl Infect Dis 2013; 15:E64-69.

Roy M, Benedict K, Deak E, et al. A large community outbreak of blastomycosis in Wisconsin with geographic and ethnic clustering . Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57(5): 655-62.

Scheel CM, Hurst SF, Barreiros G, Akiti T, Nucci M, Balajee SA. Molecular analyses of Fusarium isolates recovered from a cluster of invasive mold infections in a Brazilian hospital. BMC Infect Dis 2013; 13: 49.

Smith RM, Nguyen TA, Ha HT, et al. Prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia and cost-effectiveness of a cryptococcal antigen screening program--Vietnam . PloS one 2013; 8(4): e62213.

Smith RM, Schaefer MK, Kainer MA, et al. Fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections . N Engl J Med 2013;369:1598-1609

Smith RM, Tipple M, Chaudry MN, Schaefer MK, Park BJ. Relapse of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated methylprednisolone . N Engl J Med 2013; 368(26): 2535-6.

Theodoro RC, Scheel CM, Brandt ME, Kasuga T, Bagagli E. PRP8 intein in cryptic species of Histoplasma capsulatum: evolution and phylogeny. Infect Genet Evol 2013; 18: 174-82.


Benedict K, Roy M, Chiller T, Davis JP. Epidemiologic and ecologic features of blastomycosis: a review . Curr Fung Infect Rep 2012; 6: 327-35.

Brandt ME, Lockhart SR. Recent taxonomic developments with Candida and other opportunistic yeasts. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2012; 6: 178-91.

Burco JD, Etienne KA, Massey JG, Ziccardi MH, Balajee SA. Molecular sub-typing suggests that the environment of rehabilitation centers may be a potential source of Aspergillus fumigatus infecting rehabilitating seabirds . Med Mycol 2012; 50(1): 91-8.

CDC. Histoplasmosis outbreak among day camp attendees--Nebraska, June 2012 . MMWR 2012; 61: 747-8.

CDC. Multistate outbreak of fungal infection associated with injection of methylprednisolone acetate solution from a single compounding pharmacy - United States, 2012 . MMWR 2012; 61(41): 839-42.

Cleveland AA, Farley MM, Harrison LH, et al. Changes in incidence and antifungal drug resistance in candidemia: results from population-based laboratory surveillance in Atlanta and Baltimore, 2008-2011 . Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55(10): 1352-61.

Espinel-Ingroff A, Aller AI, Canton E, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56(11): 5898-906.

Espinel-Ingroff A, Chowdhary A, Cuenca-Estrella M, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B and flucytosine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56(6): 3107-13.

Etienne KA, Gillece J, Hilsabeck R, et al. Whole genome sequence typing to investigate the Apophysomyces outbreak following a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, 2011. PloS one 2012; 7(11): e49989.

Govender NP, Chetty V, Roy M, et al. Phased implementation of screening for cryptococcal disease in South Africa . S Afr Med J 2012; 102(12): 914-7.

Harris J, Lockhart S, Chiller T. Cryptococcus gattii: where do we go from here? Med Mycol 2012; 50(2): 113-29.

Harris JR, Lindsley MD, Henchaichon S, et al. High prevalence of cryptococcal infection among HIV-infected patients hospitalized with pneumonia in Thailand [PDF - 8 pages]. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54(5): e43-50.

Iverson SA, Chiller T, Beekmann S, Polgreen PM, Harris J. Recognition and diagnosis of Cryptococcus gattii infections in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18(6): 1012-5.
Journal of clinical microbiology 2012; 50(6): 2040-6.

Jarvis JN, Govender N, Chiller T, et al. Cryptococcal antigen screening and preemptive therapy in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: a proposed algorithm for clinical implementation . J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 2012; 11(6): 374-9.

Kainer MA, Reagan DR, Nguyen DB, et al. Fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone in Tennessee . N Engl J Med 2012; 367(23): 2194-203.

Klausner JD, Govender N, Oladoyinbo S, Roy M, Chiller T. Preventing AIDS deaths: cryptococcal antigen screening and treatment . Lancet Infect Dis 2012; 12(6): 431-2.

Lockhart SR, Iqbal N, Bolden CB, et al. Epidemiologic cutoff values for triazole drugs in Cryptococcus gattii: correlation of molecular type and in vitro susceptibility. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 73(2): 144-8.

Lockhart SR, Iqbal N, Cleveland AA, et al. Species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida bloodstream isolates from population-based surveillance studies in two U.S. cities from 2008 to 2011 [PDF - 31 pages]. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50(11): 3435-42.

Lott TJ, Frade JP, Lyon GM, Iqbal N, Lockhart SR. Bloodstream and non-invasive isolates of Candida glabrata have similar population structures and fluconazole susceptibilities. Med Mycol 2012; 50(2): 136-42.

McLeland S, Duncan C, Spraker T, Wheeler E, Lockhart SR, Gulland F. Cryptococcus albidus infection in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). J Wildl Dis 2012; 48(4): 1030-4.

Mortenson JA, Bartlett KH, Wilson RW, Lockhart SR. Detection of Cryptococcus gattii in selected urban parks of the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Mycopathologia 2013; 175(3-4): 351-5.

Neal CO, Deak E, Chang LS, et al. Pseudo-outbreak of Lecanicillium and Acremonium species in orthopedic surgery patients. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50(12): 4103-6.

Neblett Fanfair R, Benedict K, Bos J, et al. Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011 . N Engl J Med 2012; 367(23): 2214-25.

Olsen GL, Deitz KL, Flaherty HA, Lockhart SR, Hurst SF, Haynes JS. Use of terbinafine in the treatment protocol of intestinal Cryptococcus neoformans in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2012; 48(3): 216-20.

Pfaller MA, Castanheira M, Lockhart SR, Ahlquist AM, Messer SA, Jones RN. Frequency of decreased susceptibility and resistance to echinocandins among fluconazole-resistant bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata . J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50(4): 1199-203.

Pfaller MA, Castanheira M, Lockhart SR, Jones RN. Candida glabrata: Multidrug resistance and increased virulence in a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2012; 6: 154-64.

Pfaller MA, Espinel-Ingroff A, Canton E, et al. Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin B, flucytosine, and itraconazole and Candida spp. as determined by CLSI broth microdilution. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50(6): 2040-6.

Pham CD, Lockhart SR. An invisible threat: mutation-mediated resistance to triazole drugs in Aspergillus. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2012; 6: 288-95.

Reiss E, Lasker BA, Lott TJ, et al.  Genotyping of Candida parapsilosis from three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) using a panel of five multilocus microsatellite markers: broad genetic diversity and a cluster of related strains in one NICU. Infect Genet Evol 2012; 12(8): 1654-60.

Roy M, Harris J, Afreen S, et al. Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh . Food Additives & Contamin 2012; 6(1): 1-7.

Sellers B, Hall P, Cine-Gowdie S, et al. Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen in the southeastern United States. Am J Med Sci 2012; 343(6): 510-1.

Smith RM, Schaefer MK, Kainer MA, et al. Fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone Injections - preliminary report . N Engl J Med 2012; Dec 19.

Vaneslow M, Brandt ME, Park BJ. Diagnosis and management of cryptococcal disease in resource-limited settings . Curr Fung Infect Rep 2012; 6: 35-40.


Baddley JW, Schain DC, Gupte AA, et al. Transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans by organ transplantation [PDF - 5 pages]. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52(4): e94-8.

CDC. Notes from the Field: fatal fungal soft tissue infections after a tornado—Joplin, Missouri, 2011. MMWR 2011; 60(29): 992.

Chaturvedi V, Ramani R, Andes D, et al. Multilaboratory testing of two-drug combinations of antifungals against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011; 55(4): 1543-8.

Chen S, Erhart LM, Anderson S, et al. Coccidioidomycosis: knowledge, attitudes, and practices among healthcare providers--Arizona, 2007. Med Mycol 2011; 49(6): 649-56.

Deak E, B.J. P. Cryptococcal meningitis- global public health challenges and opportunities. Eur Infect Dis 2011; 5(2): 83-7.

Deak E, Nelson M, Hernandez-Rodriguez Y, et al. Aspergillus terreus accessory conidia are multinucleated, hyperpolarizing structures that display differential dectin staining and can induce heightened inflammatory responses in a pulmonary model of aspergillosis. Virulence 2011; 2(3): 200-7.

Edupuganti S, Rouphael N, Mehta A, et al. Fusarium falciforme vertebral abscess and osteomyelitis: case report and molecular classification. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49(6): 2350-3.

Engelthaler DM, Chiller T, Schupp JA, et al. Next-generation sequencing of Coccidioides immitis isolated during cluster investigation [PDF - 6 pages]. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17(2): 227-32.

Etienne KA, Subudhi CP, Chadwick PR, et al. Investigation of a cluster of cutaneous aspergillosis in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 2011; 79(4): 344-8.

Frade JP, Arthington-Skaggs BA. Effect of serum and surface characteristics on Candida albicans biofilm formation. Mycoses 2011; 54(4): e154-62.

Gillece JD, Schupp JM, Balajee SA, et al. Whole genome sequence analysis of Cryptococcus gattii from the Pacific Northwest reveals unexpected diversity. PloS one 2011; 6(12): e28550.

Govender NP, Chiller TM, Poonsamy B, Frean JA. Neglected fungal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: a call to action. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2011; 5: 224-32.

Govender NP, Patel J, van Wyk M, et al. Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates obtained through population-based surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011; 55(6): 2606-11.

Guarner J, Brandt ME. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century. Clin Microbiol Rev 2011; 24(2): 247-80.

Harris JR, Blaney DD, Lindsley MD, et al. Blastomycosis in man after kinkajou bite [PDF - 3 pages]. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17(2): 268-70.

Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Debess E, et al. Cryptococcus gattii in the United States: clinical aspects of infection with an emerging pathogen. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53(12): 1188-95.

Harris JR, Marston BJ, Sangrujee N, DuPlessis D, Park B. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnostic options for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). PloS one 2011; 6(8): e23158.

Jabeen K, Farooqi J, Zafar A, et al. Rhinocladiella mackenziei as an emerging cause of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in Pakistan: a case series. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52(2): 213-7.

Lindsley MD, Mekha N, Baggett HC, et al. Evaluation of a newly developed lateral flow immunoassay for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53(4): 321-5.

Lockhart SR, Bolden CB, Iqbal N, Kuykendall RJ. Validation of 24-hour flucytosine MIC determination by comparison with 48-hour determination by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 broth microdilution reference method. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49(12): 4322-5.

Lockhart SR, Frade JP, Etienne KA, Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Balajee SA. Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from the ARTEMIS global surveillance study is primarily due to the TR/L98H mutation in the cyp51A gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011; 55(9): 4465-8.

Lockhart SR, Wagner D, Iqbal N, et al. Comparison of in vitro susceptibility characteristics of Candida species from cases of invasive candidiasis in solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients: Transplant-Associated Infections Surveillance Network (TRANSNET), 2001 to 2006. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49(7): 2404-10.

Lockhart SR, Zimbeck AJ, Baddley JW, et al. In vitro echinocandin susceptibility of Aspergillus isolates from patients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011; 55(8): 3944-6.

Lockhart SR. Do hospital microbiology laboratories still need to distinguish Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis? [PDF - 2 pages]. J Clin Microbiol 2011; 49(12): 4415.

Park BJ, Pappas PG, Wannemuehler KA, et al. Invasive non-Aspergillus mold infections in transplant recipients, United States, 2001-2006. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17(10): 1855-64.

Park BJ, Shetty S, Ahlquist A, et al. Long-term follow-up and survival of antiretroviral-naive patients with cryptococcal meningitis in the pre-antiretroviral therapy era, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Int J STD AIDS 2011; 22(4): 199-203.

Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Andes D, et al. Clinical breakpoints for the echinocandins and Candida revisited: integration of molecular, clinical, and microbiological data to arrive at species-specific interpretive criteria. Drug Resist Updat 2011; 14(3): 164-76.

Roy M, Chiller T. Preventing death from HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: the way forward. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2011; 5: 206-14.

Roy M, Chiller T. Preventing deaths from cryptococcal meningitis: from bench to bedside. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2011; 9(9): 715-7.

Sharma P, Cohen JK, Lockhart SR, Hurst SF, Drew CP. Ruptured mycotic aortic aneurysm in a sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys). Comp Med 2011; 61(6): 532-7.

Stone A, Park BJ. Penicillium marneffei infection: knowledge, gaps, and future directions. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2011; 5: 193-8.

Walraven CJ, Gerstein W, Hardison SE, et al. Fatal disseminated Cryptococcus gattii infection in New Mexico. PloS one 2011; 6(12): e28625.


Alexander BD, Schell WA, Siston AM, et al. Fatal Apophysomyces elegans infection transmitted by deceased donor renal allografts. Am J Transplant 2010; 10(9): 2161-7.

CDC. Emergence of Cryptococcus gattii-- Pacific Northwest, 2004-2010. MMWR 2010; 59(28): 865-8.

Chiller TM. Fluconazole therapy for cryptococcal meningitis: are options available where it is needed most—Africa ? Curr Fung Infect Rep 2010; 4: 197-9.

Da Matta DA, Melo AS, Colombo AL, Frade JP, Nucci M, Lott TJ. Candidemia surveillance in Brazil: evidence for a geographical boundary defining an area exhibiting an abatement of infections by Candida albicans group 2 strains. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48(9): 3062-7.

Da Matta DA, Melo AS, Guimaraes T, Frade JP, Lott TJ, Colombo AL.  Multilocus sequence typing of sequential Candida albicans isolates from patients with persistent or recurrent fungemia. Med Mycol 2010; 48(5): 757-62.

Deak E, Etienne KA, Lockhart SR, Gade L, Chiller T, Balajee SA. Utility of a Luminex-based assay for multiplexed, rapid species identification of Candida isolates from an ongoing candidemia surveillance. Can J Mircobiol 2010; 56(4): 348-51.

Fisher BT, Chiller TM, Prasad PA, Beveridge M, Walsh TJ, Zaoutis TE. Hospitalizations for coccidioidomycosis at forty-one children's hospitals in the United States . Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010; 29(3): 243-7.

Garcia-Hermoso D, MacCallum DM, Lott TJ, et al. Multicenter collaborative study for standardization of Candida albicans genotyping using a polymorphic microsatellite marker. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48(7): 2578-81.

Harris JR, Balajee SA, Park BJ. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: current knowledge and outstanding public health issues. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2010; 4: 229-37.

Iqbal N, DeBess EE, Wohrle R, et al. Correlation of genotype and in vitro susceptibilities of Cryptococcus gattii strains from the Pacific Northwest of the United States. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48(2): 539-44.

Kim JH, Campbell BC, Mahoney N, Chan KL, Molyneux RJ, Balajee A. Augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents . Fungal Biol 2010; 114(10): 817-24.

Kontoyiannis DP, Marr KA, Park BJ, et al. Prospective surveillance for invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, 2001-2006: overview of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) Database . Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50(8): 1091-100.

Lattif AA, Mukherjee PK, Chandra J, et al. Characterization of biofilms formed by Candida parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis. Int J Med MIcrobiol 2010; 300(4): 265-70.

Lockhart SR, Harris JR. Cryptococcus gattii: clinical importance and emergence in North America. Curr Fung Infect Rep 2010; 4: 151-7.

Lott TJ, Frade JP, Lockhart SR. Multilocus sequence type analysis reveals both clonality and recombination in populations of Candida glabrata bloodstream isolates from U.S. surveillance studies . Eukaryot Cell 2010; 9(4): 619-25.

Munoz-Cadavid C, Rudd S, Zaki SR, et al. Improving molecular detection of fungal DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: comparison of five tissue DNA extraction methods using panfungal PCR . J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48(6): 2147-53.

O'Donnell K, Sutton DA, Rinaldi MG, et al. Internet-accessible DNA sequence database for identifying fusaria from human and animal infections . J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48(10): 3708-18.

Pappas PG, Alexander BD, Andes DR, et al. Invasive fungal infections among organ transplant recipients: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) . Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50(8): 1101-11.

Rotstein DS, West K, Levine G, et al. Cryptococcus gattii vgi in a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Hawaii. J Zoo Wildl Med 2010; 41(1): 181-3.

Roy M, Park BJ, Chiller TM. Donor-derived fungal infections in transplant patients . Curr Fung Infect Rep 2010; 4: 219-38.

Tsang CA, Anderson SM, Imholte SB, et al. Enhanced surveillance of coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA, 2007-2008 . Emerg Infect Dis 2010; 16(11): 1738-44.

Zimbeck AJ, Iqbal N, Ahlquist AM, et al. FKS mutations and elevated echinocandin MIC values among Candida glabrata isolates from U.S. population-based surveillance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010; 54(12): 5042-7.


Baddley JW, Marr KA, Andes DR, et al. Patterns of susceptibility of Aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47(10): 3271-5.

Balajee SA, Baddley JW, Peterson SW, et al. Aspergillus alabamensis, a new clinically relevant species in the section Terrei. Eukaryot Cell 2009; 8(5): 713-22.

Balajee SA, Borman AM, Brandt ME, et al. Sequence-based identification of Aspergillus, fusarium, and mucorales species in the clinical mycology laboratory: where are we and where should we go from here? J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47(4): 877-84.

Balajee SA, Kano R, Baddley JW, et al. Molecular identification of Aspergillus species collected for the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47(10): 3138-41.

Balajee SA. Aspergillus terreus complex. Med Mycol 2009; 47 Suppl 1: S42-6.

Brandt ME, Gade L, McCloskey CB, Balajee SA. Atypical Aspergillus flavus isolates associated with chronic azole therapy. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47(10): 3372-5.

Burwell LA, Park BJ, Wannemuehler KA, et al. Outcomes among inmates treated for coccidioidomycosis at a correctional institution during a community outbreak, Kern County, California, 2004 . Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49(11): e113-9.

CDC. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents [PDF - 216]. MMWR 2009; 58(RR-4): 1-198.

CDC. Outbreak of erythema nodosum of unknown cause - New Mexico, November 2007-January 2008 . MMWR 2009; 58(48): 1347-51.

Datta K, Bartlett KH, Baer R, et al. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15(8): 1185-91.

De Valk HA, Meis JF, Bretagne S, et al. Interlaboratory reproducibility of a microsatellite-based typing assay for Aspergillus fumigatus through the use of allelic ladders: proof of concept. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15(2): 180-7.

Deak E, Wilson SD, White E, Carr JH, Balajee SA. Aspergillus terreus accessory conidia are unique in surface architecture, cell wall composition and germination kinetics. PloS one 2009; 4(10): e7673.

Etienne KA, Gade L, Lockhart SR, et al. Screening of a large global Aspergillus fumigatus species complex collection by using a species-specific microsphere-based Luminex assay. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47(12): 4171-2.

Etienne KA, Kano R, Balajee SA. Development and validation of a microsphere-based Luminex assay for rapid identification of clinically relevant aspergilli . J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47(4): 1096-100.

Gea-Banacloche J, Masur H, Arns da Cunha C, et al. Regionally limited or rare infections: prevention after hematopoietic cell transplantation . Bone Marrow Transplant 2009; 44(8): 489-94.

Hurst SF, Kidd SE, Morrissey CO, et al. Interlaboratory reproducibility of a single-locus sequence-based method for strain typing of Aspergillus fumigatus. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47(5): 1562-4.

Klaassen CH, de Valk HA, Balajee SA, Meis JF. Utility of CSP typing to sub-type clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates and proposal for a new CSP type nomenclature. J Microbiol Methods 2009; 77(3): 292-6.

Marr KA, Bow E, Chiller T, et al. Fungal infection prevention after hematopoietic cell transplantation . Bone Marrow Transplant 2009; 44(8): 483-7.

Park BJ, Wannemuehler KA, Marston BJ, Govender N, Pappas PG, Chiller TM. Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS . AIDS 2009; 23(4): 525-30.

Rao CY, Pachucki C, Cali S, et al. Contaminated product water as the source of Phialemonium curvatum bloodstream infection among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009; 30(9): 840-7.

Scheel CM, Samayoa B, Herrera A, et al. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Histoplasma capsulatum antigenuria in immunocompromised patients. Clinical Vaccine Immunol 2009; 16(6): 852-8.

Staab JF, Balajee SA, Marr KA. Aspergillus section Fumigati typing by PCR-restriction fragment polymorphism. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47(7): 2079-83.

Swartzentruber S, Rhodes L, Kurkjian K, et al. Diagnosis of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis by antigen detection . Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49(12): 1878-82.

Tomblyn M, Chiller T, Einsele H, et al. Guidelines for preventing infectious complications among hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: a global perspective . Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2009; 15(10): 1143-238.

Verani JR, Lorick SA, Yoder JS, et al. National outbreak of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15(8): 1236-42.

Warnock DW, Chiller TM, Chiller KG. Superficial fungal infections. London: Elsevier, 2009.

Winthrop KL, Chiller T. Preventing and treating biologic-associated opportunistic infections . Nat Rev Rheumatol 2009; 5(7): 405-10.