Types of Fungal Diseases
Fungi are everywhere. There are millions of different fungal species on Earth, but only about 300 of those are known to make people sick.1-3 Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil and on plants and trees as well as on many indoor surfaces and on human skin. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health.
Caused by the fungus Aspergillus and usually occurs in people with lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
Caused by the yeast Candida. Candidiasis can occur in the mouth and throat, vagina, or the bloodstream.
Caused by Coccidioides, a fungus that lives in the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico and Central and South America.
Caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which lives in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world, the United States Pacific Northwest, and British Columbia.
Common infections of the fingernails or toenails.
A rare infection that mainly affects people with weakened immune systems.
Caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii and mainly affects people with weakened immune systems.
Caused by the fungus Sporothrix, which lives throughout the world in soil and on plants.
Caused by the fungus Blastomyces, which lives in moist soil in parts of the United States and Canada
Emerging, often multidrug-resistant fungus found in healthcare settings that presents a serious global health threat.
Caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, which can infect the brain, causing meningitis in people with weakened immune systems, particularly those who have HIV/AIDS.
Rare infections that can develop after an eye injury or eye surgery.
Caused by the fungus Histoplasma, which lives in the environment, often in association with large amounts of bird or bat droppings.
Caused by certain types of bacteria and fungi found in soil and water, typically in rural regions of Africa, Latin America, and Asia.
A common fungal skin infection that often looks like a circular rash.
Caused by Talaromyces, a fungus found in Southeast Asia, southern China, or eastern India and affects people who have weakened immune systems.
Graphics and Resource Links
- Garcia-Solache MA, Casadevall A. Global warming will bring new fungal diseases for mammals. mBio 2010;1.
- Hawksworth DL. The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1.5 million species estimate revisited. Mycol Res 2001;105:1422-32.
- Tedersoo L, Bahram M, Põlme S, Kõljalg U, Yorou NS, Wijesundera R, et al. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi. Science. 2014;346(6213)