NIOSH logo and tagline

NIOSH Training for Nurses on Shift Work and Long Work Hours

Other Sources of Information about Work Schedules and Sleep

Here are a few of the many excellent resources on work schedules and sleep.

Finding a Sleep Disorders Specialist or Accredited Sleep Disorders Center

Free or Low-Cost Resources

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

Other U.S. Government Departments

Other Sources

TV Programs

Books (may be available at public libraries)

  • Epstein LJ, Mardon S [2007]. The Harvard Medical School guide to a good night’s sleep. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Hirshkowitz M, Smith PB [2004]. Sleep disorders for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • American Nurses Association Position Statement – ‘Addressing nurse fatigue to promote safety and health: Joint responsibilities of registered nurses and employers to reduce risks’ (2014). Access available to ANA members.

Selected Scientific Papers on Countermeasures

  • Caldwell JA, Mallis MM, Caldwell JL, Paul MA, Miller JC, Neri DF, Aerospace Medical Association Fatigue Countermeasures Subcommittee of the Aerospace Human Factors Committee [2009]. Fatigue countermeasures in aviation. Aviat Space Environ Med 80(1):29–59.
  • Lerman SE, Eskin E, Flower DJ, George EC, Gerson B, Hartenbaum N, et al. [2012]. Fatigue risk management in the workplace. J Occup Environ Med 54:231–258.
  • Lowden A, Moreno C, Holmbäck U, Lennernäs M, Tucker P [2010]. Eating and shift work: effects on habits, metabolism and performance. Scand J Work Environ Health 362:150–162.
  • Monk TH [2000]. What can the chronobiologist do to help the shift worker? J Biol Rhythms 15:86–94.
  • Morgenthaler TI, Lee-Chiong T, Alessi C, Friedman L, Aurora RN, Boehlecke B, Brown T, Chesson AL, Kapur V, Maganti R, Owens J, Pancer J, Swick TJ, Zak R [2007]. Practice parameters for the clinical evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Sleep 30:1445–1459.
  • Pallesen S, Bjorvatn B, Mageroy N, et al. [2010]. Measures to counteract the negative effects of night work. Scand J Work Environ Health 36(2):109–120.
  • Revell VL, Eastman CI [2005]. How to trick mother nature into letting you fly around or stay up all night. J Biol Rhythms 20:353–365.
  • Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, Carskadon MA, Wright KP, Vitiello MV, Zhdanova I [2007]. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Part 1: basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. Sleep 30:1460–1483.
  • Smith M, Eastman CI [2012]. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment. Nature Sci Sleep 4:111–132.

Selected Reviews of Literature Concerning Risks of Shift Work and Long Work Hours

  • Caruso CC, Hitchcock EM, Dick RB, Russo JM, Schmit JM [2004]. Overtime and extended work shifts: recent findings on illnesses, injuries, and health behaviors. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-143. Cincinnati, OH: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  • Costa G, Haus E, Stevens R [2010]. Shift work and cancer: considerations on rationale, mechanisms, and epidemiology. Scand J Work Environ Health 36:163–179.
  • The Institute of Medicine [2004]. Keeping patients safe: transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • Knauth P [2006]. Extended work periods. Ind Health 45(1): 125–136.
  • Knutson A & Bøggild H [2010]. Gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 36(2):85–95.
  • Puttonen S, Harma M, Hublin C [2010]. Shift work and cardiovascular disease: pathways from circadian stress to morbidity. Scand J Work Environ Health 36(2):96–108.

Selected Papers on Design of Work Schedules

  • Folkard S, Lombardi DA [2006]. Modeling the impact of the components of long work hours on injuries and ‘accidents’. Am J Ind Med 49:953–963.
  • Knauth P, Hornberger S [2003]. Preventive and compensatory measures for shift workers. Occup Med (Oxford) 53:109–116.
  • Rosa RR, Colligan MJ [1997]. Plain language about shiftwork. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 1997-145. Cincinnati, OH: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  • Sallinen M, Kecklund G [2010]. Shift work, sleep, and sleepiness: differences between shift schedules and systems. Scand J Work Environ Health 36(2):121–133.