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NIOSH Training for Nurses on Shift Work and Long Work Hours


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  2. The Joint Commission [2011]. Health care worker fatigue and patient safety. The Joint Commission Sentinel Event Alert 48:Dec 14 [].
  3. The Joint Commission [2012]. Improving Patient and Worker Safety Opportunities for Synergy, Collaboration and Innovation [].
  4. American Nurses Association [2014]. Position Statement: Addressing nurse fatigue to promote safety and health: Joint responsibilities of registered nurses and employers to reduce risks. [members can access at].
  5. Lerman SE, Eskin E, Flower DJ, George EC, Gerson B, Hartenbaum N, Hursh SR, Moore-Ede M, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Presidential Task Force on Fatigue Risk Management [2012]. Fatigue risk management in the workplace. J Occup Environ Med 54:231–258.
  6. Peter D. Hart Research Associates [2001]. The nurse shortage: perspectives from current direct care nurses and former direct care nurses [].
  7. Landrigan CP, Rothschild JM, Cronin JW, Kauschal R, Burdick E, Katz JT, Lilly CM, Stone PH, Lockley SW, Bates DW, Czeisler CA [2004]. Effect of reducing interns’ work hours on serious medical errors in intensive care units. N Engl J Med 351:1838–1848.
  8. Rogers AE, Hwang W, Scott LD, Aiken LH, Dinges DF [2004]. The working hours of hospital staff nurses and patient safety. Health Affairs 23:202–212.
  9. Stimpfel AW, Sloane DM, Aiken LH [2012]. The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction. Health Aff (Millwood) 31:2501–2509.
  10. Scott LD, Rogers AE, Hwang WT, Zhang Y [2006]. Effects of critical care nurses’ work hours on vigilance and patients’ safety. Am J Crit Care 15:30–37.
  11. Trinkoff AM, Johantgen M, Storr CL, Gurses AP, Liang Y, Han K [2011]. Nurses’ work schedule characteristics, nurse staffing, and patient mortality. Nursing Res 60:1–8.
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  13. Monk TH [2000]. What can the chronobiologist do to help the shift worker? J Biol Rhythms 15(2):86–94.
  14. Rosa RR, Colligan MJ [1997]. Plain language about shiftwork. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-145. Cincinnati, OH: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  15. Bambra CL, Whitehead MM, Sowden AJ, Akers J, Petticrew MP [2008]. Shifting schedules: the health effects of reorganizing shift work. Am J Prev Med 34(5):427–434.
  16. Smith MR, Eastman C [2012]. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment. Nat Sci Sleep 20(4):111–132.
  17. Tucker P, Folkard S [2012]. Working time, health and safety: a research synthesis paper. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 31. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office [–en/index.htm].
  18. Institute of Medicine [2004]. Keeping patients safe: transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  19. Bae SH, Fabry D [2014]. Assessing the relationships between nurse work hours/overtime and nurse and patient outcomes: systematic literature review. Nurs Outlook 62(2):138–156.
  20. NORA Healthcare and Social Assistance Sector Council [2009]. State of the sector. Healthcare and social assistance: identification of research opportunities for the next decade of NORA. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 2009-139 [].
  21. Folkard S, Lombardi DA [2006]. Modeling the impact of the components of long work hours on injuries and “accidents.” Am J Ind Med 49(11):953–963.
  22. Arlinghaus A, Lombardi DA, Courtney TK, Christiani DC, Folkard S, Perry MJ [2012]. The effect of rest breaks on time to injury – a study on work-related ladder-fall injuries in the United States. Scand J Work Environ Health 38(6):560–567.
  23. Lombardi DA, Jin K, Courtney TK, Arlinghaus A, Folkard S, Liang Y, Perry MJ [2014]. The effects of rest breaks, work shift start time, and sleep on the onset of severe injury among workers in the People’s Republic of China. Scand J Work Environ Health 40(2):146–155.
  24. Morgenthaler TI, Lee-Chiong T, Alessi C, Friedman L, Aurora RN, Boehlecke B, Brown T, Chesson AL Jr, Kapur V, Maganti R, Owens J, Pancer J, Swick TJ, Zak R, Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine [2007]. Practice parameters for the clinical evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep 30(11):1445–1459.
  25. Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, Carskadon MA, Wright KP Jr, Vitiello MV, Zhdanova IV [2007]. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep 30(11):1460–1483.
  26. Krauss AD, Chen PJ, DeArmond S [2003]. Sleepiness in the workplace: causes, consequences, and countermeasures. Intl Rev Indust Organiz Psychol 18:81–129.
  27. Barger LK, Cade BE, Ayas NT, Cronin JW, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Czeisler CA [2005]. Extended work shifts and the risk of motor vehicle crashes among interns. N Engl J Med 352:125–97.
  28. Scott LD, Hwang W, Rogers AE, Nysse T, Dean GE, Dinges DF [2007]. The relationship between nurse work schedules, sleep duration, and drowsy driving. Sleep 30:1801–1807.
  29. Swanson LM, Drake C, Arnedt JT [2012]. Employment and drowsy driving: a survey of American workers. Behav Sleep Med 10, 250–257.
  30. Smolensky MH, Di Milia L, Ohayon MM, Philip P [2011]. Sleep disorders, medical conditions, and road accident risk. Accid Analysis Prevent 43:533–548.
  31. Pisarski A, Lawrence SA, Bohle P, Brook C [2008]. Organizational influences on the work life conflict and health of shift workers. Appl Ergon 39:580–588.
  32. Eriksen W, Bjorvatn B, Bruusgaard D, Knardahl S [2008]. Work factors as predictors of poor sleep in nurses’ aides. Intl Arch Occup Environ Health 81(3):301–310.
  33. Geiger-Brown J, Trinkoff AM, Nielsen K, Lirtmunlikaporn S, Brady B, Vasquez EI [2004]. Nurses’ perception of their work environment, health, and well-being: a qualitative perspective. AAOHNJ 52(1):16–22.
  34. McDonald R, Kahn K [2007]. Respectful relationships: the heart of better jobs, better care. FutureAge 6(2): 12–15.
  35. Shirey MR [2004]. Social support in the workplace: nurse leader implications. Nurs Econ 22(6):313–319.
  36. Way M, MacNeil M [2006]. Organizational characteristics and their effect on health. Nurs Econ 24(2):67–76.
  37. Smetzer J, Baker C, Byrne FB, Cohen MR [2010]. Shaping systems for better behavioral choices: lessons learned from a fatal medication error. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 36:152–163.
  38. Wisconsin Department of Regulation and Licensing [2006]. State of Wisconsin before the Board of Nursing: Final decision and order LS0612145NUR. Division of Enforcement case no. 06NUR247 [].
  39. State v. Scott Robb, No. 04001655 (N.J. Aug. 19, 2005).
  40. Michial Jacobs v. Pacific Transportation Services, Ernie Newland and Thomas Lloyd. No. PM06-1710, 2010 WL 2894512 (California 2010).
  41. Marthe vs. Trotter. No. MC006412, 1999 WL 318940 (California 1999).
  42. Garza v. Posadas USA Inc., No. 2000CVE000509-D1 (Webb Co., Texas,Dist. Ct.).
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