NIOSH logo and tagline

NIOSH Training for Nurses on Shift Work and Long Work Hours


  1. Morgenthaler TI, Lee-Chiong T, Alessi C, Friedman L, Aurora RN, Boehlecke B, Brown T, Chesson AL Jr, Kapur V, Maganti R, Owens J, Pancer J, Swick TJ, Zak R, Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine [2007]. Practice parameters for the clinical evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep 30(11):1445–1459.
  2. Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, Carskadon MA, Wright KP Jr, Vitiello MV, Zhdanova IV, American Academy of Sleep Medicine [2007]. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Part I: basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep 30(11):1460–1483.
  3. Drake CL, Roehrs T, Richardson G, Walsh JK, Roth T [2004]. Shift work sleep disorder: prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep 27:1453–1462.
  4. Pilcher JJ, Lambert BJ, Huffcutt AI [2000]. Differential effects of permanent and rotating shifts on self- report sleep length: a meta-analytic review. Sleep 23:155–163.
  5. Smith MR, Eastman CI [2012]. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment. Nature Sci Sleep 4:111–132 [].
  6. Revell VL, Eastman CI [2005]. How to trick Mother Nature into letting you fly around or stay up all night. J Biol Rhythms 20:353–365.
  7. Lerman SE, Eskin E, Flower DJ, George EC, Gerson B, Hartenbaum N, Hursh SR, Moore-Ede M, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Presidential Task Force on Fatigue Risk Management [2012]. Fatigue risk management in the workplace. J Occup Environ Med 54:231–258.
  8. Smith MR, Eastman CI [2008]. Night shift performance is improved by a compromise circadian phase position: study 3. Circadian phase after 7 night shifts with an intervening weekend off. Sleep 31:1639–1645.
  9. Atkinson G, Fullick S, Grindey C, Maclaren D [2008]. Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker. Sports Med 38(8):671–685.
  10. Lowden A, Holmbäck U, Åkerstedt T, Forslund J, Lennernäs M, Forslund A [2004]. Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet. Biol Psychol 65(3):251–263.
  11. Anderson C, Horne JA [2006]. A high sugar content, low caffeine drink does not alleviate sleepiness but may worsen it. Hum Psychopharmacol 21(5):299–303.
  12. Burdakov D, Jensen LT, Alexopoulos H, Williams RH, Fearon IM, O’Kelly I, Gerasimenko O, Fugger L, Verkhratsky A [2006]. Tandem-pore K+ channels mediate inhibition of orexin neurons by glucose. Neuron 50(5):711–722.
  13. Holmbäck U [2002]. Metabolic, endocrine and mood responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy. Ups J Med Sci 107(3):121–158.
  14. Knauth P, Hornberger S [2003]. Preventive and compensatory measures for shift workers. Occup Med (London) 53(2):109–116.
  15. Lennernäs M [2004]. Eating pattern. In: Becker W, ed. Nordic nutrition recommendations []. Norway: Nordic Council, 85–101.
  16. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010 [].
  17. American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention [].
Module: 9, Page 12 of 12