TB and People Living in Correctional Facilities in the United States
People living in congregate settings, including correctional facilities and detention centers, are at an increased risk of becoming infected with TB germs compared to the overall population.
By the Numbers
In 2020, U.S. state, local, and territorial health agencies reported a total of 7,174 TB cases to CDC.
Approximately 3% of TB cases (179 TB cases) reported in the United States occurred among people who were current residents of correctional facilities 15 years of age or older.
Among the TB cases reported among residents of correctional facilities,
- 10.1% were among residents of federal prisons,
- 25.1% were among residents of state prisons,
- 22.9% were among residents of local jails, and
- 39.1% were among residents of other facilities.
Read more in Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2020.
TB Control in Correctional Facilities
Effective TB prevention and control measures in correctional facilities include:
- Early identification of persons with TB disease through entry and periodic follow-up screening;
- Successful treatment of TB disease and latent TB infection;
- Appropriate use of airborne precautions (e.g., airborne infection isolation, environmental controls, and respiratory protection);
- Comprehensive discharge planning; and
- Thorough and efficient contact investigations when a TB case has been identified.
These measures should be instituted in close collaboration with local or state health department TB-control programs and other key partners. Continuing education of inmates, detainees, and correctional facility staff is necessary to maximize cooperation and participation. To ensure TB prevention and control measures are effective, periodic program evaluation should be conducted.
This slide set provides a summary of TB cases in a correctional facility at the time of diagnosis for the years 1993 through 2017.
Resources on TB and Correctional Facilities
- CDC Recommendations
- At-A-Glance: CDC Recommendations for Correctional and Detention Settings: Testing, Vaccination, and Treatment for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STIs
- Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Correctional and Detention Facilities: Recommendations from CDC MMWR 2006; 55 (No, RR-09, 1–44)
- Tuberculosis in Correctional Settings: What Corrections Staff Need to Know (Slide Set)
- Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Correctional and Detention Facilities (Slide Set)
- CDC Correctional and Public Health Resources by State
- Southeastern National Tuberculosis Center: Arresting TB: Understanding the Culture of Corrections
- National TB Controllers Association (NTCA) CorrectTB Resources
- Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2020
- Interim Guidance on Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Correctional and Detention Facilities
- American Correctional Association
- Find TB Resources- Education Materials for TB in Corrections
- Federal Bureau of Prisons
- National Commission on Correctional Healthcare
- National Institute of Corrections
- National Institute of Justice
- National TB Controllers Association (Corrections Committee)
- United States Department of Justice
- United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement