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TB Treatment for Children

TB Treatment for ChildrenOnce infected with TB bacteria, children are more likely to get sick with TB disease and to get sick more quickly than adults. In comparison to children, TB disease in adults is usually due to past TB infection that becomes active years later, when a person’s immune system becomes weak for some reason (e.g., HIV infection, diabetes).

A pediatric TB expert should be involved in the treatment of TB in children and in the management of infants, young children, and immunocompromised children who have been exposed to someone with infectious TB disease. It is very important that children or anyone being treated for latent TB infection or TB disease finish the medicine and take the drugs exactly as instructed.

Latent TB Infection Treatment for Children

Treatment is recommended for children with latent TB infection to prevent them from developing TB disease. Infants, young children, and immunocompromised children with latent TB infection or children in close contact with someone with infectious TB disease, require special consideration because they are at increased risk for getting TB disease. Consultation with a pediatric TB expert is recommended before treatment begins. Isoniazid is the anti-TB medicine that is most commonly used for treatment of latent TB infection. In children, the recommended length of treatment with isoniazid is 9 months.

 TB Disease Treatment for Children

TB disease is treated by taking several anti-TB medicines for 6 to 9 months. It is important to note that if a child stops taking the drugs before completion, the child can become sick again. If drugs are not taken correctly, the bacteria that are still alive may become resistant to those drugs. TB that is resistant to drugs is harder and more expensive to treat, and treatment lasts much longer (up to 18 to 24 months).