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Organizational Change | Tobacco Use Cessation Evaluation Measures

Organizational change measures for tobacco-use cessation1-5

Tobacco cessation, along with other health habits, requires ongoing support from employers. New programs can be added over time and evaluated periodically for their effectiveness. For best results, recognition of the benefits of tobacco cessation should become an inherent part of organizational change and corporate culture.

Measuring organization change is an assessment of company-initiated programs and policies that affect most employees regardless of their health status (e.g., tobacco-free campus policies). These efforts need to be integrated for greatest effectiveness and will require time for full implementation. Regular measures of employee attitudes and program development are key in determining whether new programs are effective or require further adaptation to prevent continuing investment in ineffective efforts.

Baseline

  • Determine workplace barriers to employee tobacco cessation and to avoidance of second hand smoke at the workplace
  • Assess current workplace tobacco cessation programs
    • List current tobacco cessation options for employees through worksite and identify number of employees (i.e., participation) using each option. Examples:
      • Number of tobacco cessation programs (e.g., education seminars, individual or group classes) and participation in these programs
      • Availability of educational materials on tobacco cessation
      • Number of communications/media campaigns regarding tobacco use
      • Implementation and enforcement of a tobacco-free campus policy
      • Number of tobacco-use cessation benefit programs (e.g., counseling, medication reimbursement, state-based or self-contracted quitlines) and participation in these programs
      • Development of a training program for managers and employees on new tobacco cessation programs, policies and benefits
      • Number of partnerships with community resources for tobacco cessation such as the American Cancer Society or a local health department
    • Determine costs of current company tobacco cessation programs such as:
      • Staffing, equipment, and space
      • Employee time to participate in tobacco cessation programs during work hours
      • Reimbursements/subsidies for tobacco cessation classes, counseling, or nicotine replacement therapies
      • Incentives tied to tobacco cessation programs
      • Contracts with community quitlines or EAP vendors
      • Maintenance or cleaning costs for buildings and vehicles
    • Conduct survey of employee satisfaction with current workplace supported tobacco cessation options
      • Determine employee support before and after a tobacco policy is implemented (Are employees supportive of how the policy is being enforced?)

Process

  • Reassess barriers to employee tobacco cessation and to avoidance of second hand smoke at the workplace
  • Document steps taken and progress toward implementing each intervention selected
    • List numeric goals in each form of intervention within a designated time period (e.g., 12 months from startup):
      • Employee reach (e.g., number of educational pamphlets distributed)
      • Employee participation (e.g., number of desired participants in tobacco cessation classes or using state-based or self-contracted quitlines)
    • Describe timeline for implementation of each planned intervention (e.g., length of time and timing of tasks to develop, initiate, and conduct a mass campaign)
    • Create a baseline budget for new interventions including classes, instructors, classroom space, materials, etc
    • Identify opportunities for new partnerships with community groups who provide tobacco cessation programs (e.g., The American Cancer Society, local health department, local hospital, etc.)
  • Reassess employee satisfaction regarding workplace supported tobacco cessation programs

Outcome

  • Measure reductions in the number and type of employee barriers to tobacco cessation and to avoidance of second hand smoke at the workplace
  • Assess changes in workplace tobacco cessation programs
    • Measure changes in the number of tobacco cessation options for employees through the worksite and changes in employee participation using each option before and after the tobacco cessation program or campaign. Examples:
      • Number of new programs developed and offered to employees and participation in these programs
      • Number of new educational materials developed and made available to employees
      • Number of new workplace communications/media campaigns, including posters, brochures, information on state-based or self-contracted quitlines, employee success stories, organized buddy support systems, etc., established
      • Number of new workplace policies regarding tobacco-free buildings, campus, company-owned vehicles, etc developed, implemented, and enforced compared to baseline
        • Compliance with tobacco policy (i.e., the number of violations of the policy)
      • Number of new tobacco-use cessation benefit programs (e.g., counseling, medication reimbursement, quitlines)
        • Number of employees identified as tobacco users have been referred for clinical counseling
        • Number of referred employees actually attended at least one clinical counseling session
        • Number of employees prescribed or receiving over-the-counter medications
      • Number of managers and employees trained on new tobacco cessation programs, policies and benefits
      • Number of new partnerships with community groups created to enhance access and opportunity for employees stop using tobacco
    • Assess changes in program costs from baseline
      • Increases in staffing or equipment needs due to new program offerings
      • Changes in employee participation time during work hours
      • Changes in reimbursement/subsidy costs for tobacco cessation classes, counseling, or nicotine replacement therapies
      • New incentives or benefits or changes in existing incentives or benefits based on employee participation
      • New contracts with community quitlines or EAP vendors
      • Changes in maintenance or cleaning costs for buildings and vehicles
    • Assess changes in survey responses for employee satisfaction following implementation of a workplace supported tobacco cessation program and compare with baseline
      • Assess employee support before and after a tobacco policy is implemented (Are employees supportive of how the policy is being enforced?)

Depending on goal success, evaluate the need to adjust workplace programs.

References

1.  Campbell KP, Lanza A, Dixon R, Chattopadhyay S, Molinari N, Finch RA, editors. A Purchaser’s Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: Moving Science into Coverage. Washington, DC: National Business Group on Health; 2006.

2.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Framework for program evaluation in public health. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1999;48(No. RR-11): 1-40.

3.  Goetzel RZ, Ozminkowski RJ. Program evaluation. In: O’Donnell MP, editor. Health promotion in the workplace, 3rd edition. Albany, NY: Delmar Thomson Learning; 2002. p 116-165.

4.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Introduction to Process Evaluation in Tobacco Use Prevention and Control. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2008. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/publications/index.htm

5.  Matson Koffman DM, Lanza A, Campbell KP. A Purchaser’s Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: A tool to improve health care coverage for prevention. Preventing Chronic Disease, April 2008; 5(2).

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