Programs | Diabetes Interventions

Health-related programs for type 2 diabetes prevention and control 1-2

Employee programs refer to activities that include active employee involvement, such as classes, seminars or competitions. Employee programs are frequently provided on-site at the workplace.

Employee health surveys in the workplace provide assessment and implementation opportunities

  • Information from employee health surveys can be used to identify the percent of employees that have received appropriately timed type 2 diabetes screening (e.g., blood glucose testing)
  • Survey information can be used not only in obtaining baseline group data on employee health but also to educate individual employees to their needs for counseling and follow-up for specific health concerns
  • Assessment should also include employees’ responses regarding lifestyle issues such as obesity, nutrition, and physical activity
  • Blood glucose testing should be carried out within the health care setting because of the need for follow-up and discussion of abnormal results. Community screening outside a health care setting is not recommended

Use multifaceted employee lifestyle change participation programs

  • Obesity, nutrition, and physical activity programs in the workplace are critical elements in addressing type 2 diabetes
  • Research suggests that the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed. In 2001, results from landmark clinical trials, including the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), showed that sustained lifestyle changes that included modest weight loss and physical activity substantially reduced progression to type 2 diabetes among adults who were at very high risk
  • The lifestyle intervention worked equally well for men and women and all racial/ethnic groups, and it was most effective among people aged 60 or older. A healthy diet (see nutrition and modest physical activity) can help people cut their risk for type 2 diabetes
  • The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with prediabetes should be counseled on lifestyle changes with goals similar to those of the DPP
  • The National Diabetes Prevention Program—or National DPP—is a partnership of public and private organizations working to reduce the growing problem of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The partners work to make it easier for people with prediabetes to participate in evidence-based, affordable, and high-quality lifestyle change programs to reduce their risk of type 2 diabetes and improve their overall health.

Community education programs on diabetes self-management are effective in controlling diabetes

  • The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends diabetes management programs, and case management of diabetic patients: Disease Management Programs to Improve Diabetes Care and Case Management Interventions to Improve Glycemic Control in Diabetes
  • However, there were too few studies to determine whether such programs are effective in workplace settings specifically
  • Self-management education or training is a key step in improving health outcomes and quality of life. It focuses on self-care behaviors, such as healthy eating, being active, and monitoring blood sugar. It is a collaborative process in which diabetes educators help people with or at risk for diabetes gain the knowledge and problem-solving and coping skills needed to successfully self-manage the disease and its related conditions
  • For individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes, disease management programs are recommended to improve diabetes care. Disease management is an organized, proactive, multicomponent approach to health care delivery for specific diseases such as diabetes. Disease management programs involve tracking and monitoring individuals with diabetes by a coordinated care team to prevent complications and the development of comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease

Offer employees on-site services such as pneumococcal vaccination and yearly flu shots

  • People with diabetes are almost 3 times more likely to die with influenza [PDF-204K] (i.e., the flu) or pneumonia. Flu vaccines are available at little or not cost and can be easily given at the worksite

1.  Hernan WH, Brandle M, Zhang P, Williamson DF, Matulik MJ, Ratner RE, Lachin JM, Engelgau MM, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Costs associated with the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(1):36-47.

2.  Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, Nathan DM, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346:393-403.