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Health Outcomes | Tobacco Use Cessation Evaluation Measures

Health outcomes measures for tobacco-use cessation1-5

The effectiveness of tobacco cessation programs depends on the intensity of program effort and the use of multiple interventions. A rule of thumb is that the more programs implemented together as a package or campaign, the more successful the interventions will be.

Baseline

  • Determine levels of employee tobacco use from employee health survey or health risk appraisal. It is important to recognize that tobacco users do not always self-identify. Examples include:
    • How many employees currently smoke
    • How many employees currently use smokeless tobacco
    • How many employees are currently exposed to second-hand smoke
      • How often are employees exposed to second-hand smoke
      • When exposed to second-hand smoke, for how long is the exposure
  • Determine baseline percentage of employees with health conditions where individuals have a higher risk associated with tobacco use such as heart disease and stroke; tobacco-related cancers including lung, lip, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, larynx (voice box), pancreas, cervical, bladder, and kidney; and respiratory illnesses (colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  • Determine employee knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use◦Evaluate employees’ current knowledge of the health benefits of tobacco-use cessation
    • Determine the number of employees who are currently using tobacco, but are thinking about quitting or state that they want to quit
    • Assess employee awareness of existing workplace tobacco cessation programs, policies, and benefits
    • Development of a training program for managers and employees on new tobacco cessation programs, policies and benefits

Process

  • Periodic repeats of baseline measures

Outcome

  • Assess changes in employee levels of tobacco use such as:
    • Changes in the number of employees reporting tobacco use or exposure to second hand smoke before and after the tobacco cessation campaign or program
    • Changes in the frequency or duration of employee exposure to second hand smoke
    • Increases in number of employees who remain tobacco free for 6 or more months
    • Increases in the number of quit attempts made by employees
    • Assess changes in the percentage of employees with health conditions, where individuals have a higher risk associated with tobacco use such as heart disease and stroke; tobacco-related cancers including lung, lip, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, larynx (voice box), pancreas, cervical, bladder, and kidney; and respiratory illnesses (colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
    • Assess changes in employee knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use ◾Assess changes in employee awareness of existing workplace tobacco cessation programs, policies, and benefits
      • Assess employee support before and after tobacco policy is implemented (Are employees supportive of how the policy is being enforced?)
      • Number of managers and employees trained on new tobacco cessation programs, policies and benefits

References

1.  Campbell KP, Lanza A, Dixon R, Chattopadhyay S, Molinari N, Finch RA, editors. A Purchaser’s Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: Moving Science into Coverage. Washington, DC: National Business Group on Health; 2006.

2.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Framework for program evaluation in public health. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1999;48(No. RR-11): 1-40.

3.  Goetzel RZ, Ozminkowski RJ. Program evaluation. In: O’Donnell MP, editor. Health promotion in the workplace, 3rd edition. Albany, NY: Delmar Thomson Learning; 2002. p 116-165.

4.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Introduction to Process Evaluation in Tobacco Use Prevention and Control. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2008. 

5.  Matson Koffman DM, Lanza A, Campbell KP. A Purchaser’s Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: A tool to improve health care coverage for prevention. Preventing Chronic Disease, April 2008; 5(2).

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