Once assessment and planning have been completed, including analysis of the collected data, the next step is implementing the strategies and interventions that will comprise the workplace health program. The intervention descriptions for colorectal cancer include the public health evidence-base for each intervention, details on designing interventions for colorectal cancer screening, and links to examples and resources.
Multi-component interventions that include communications/media, education, reduction of barriers, and enhanced access to care will increase employees’ awareness of and participation in screening, prevention, and treatment.
Before implementing any interventions, the evaluation plan should also be developed. Potential baseline, process, health outcomes, and organizational change measures for these programs are listed under evaluation of colorectal cancer screening programs.
Of cancers affecting both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. population.
- Colorectal cancer has the second highest cost of any cancer in the United States1
- The total annual medical cost of colorectal cancer care is $14.1 billion1
- In 2017, more than 141,000 people were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and more than 52,000 people died from it2
Risk factors for colorectal cancer include being 50 years of age or older, having a family history of colorectal cancer, having a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease, being overweight or having obesity, being physically inactive, having certain genetic conditions, and (possibly) consuming inadequate amounts of fruits and vegetables (nutrition).3
The United States Preventive Services Task Force external iconstrongly recommends that screening begin at age 50 and continue to age 75. There are different types of tests and different screening intervals.
In Rankings of Preventive Services for the U.S. Populationexternal icon, the Partnership for Prevention provides an approach to ranking preventive services according to their clinically preventable burden (CPB) and cost effectiveness (CE). CPB is the disease, injury and premature death that would be prevented if the service were delivered to all people in the target population. With this approach, colorectal cancer screening received a ranking of 8 on a scale of 1-10, with 10 the highest ranking.
When colorectal cancer is found early and treated, the 5-year relative survival rate is 90%. Screening can also prevent colorectal cancer by allowing clinicians to identify and remove precancerous polyps before they develop into cancer.
1. Mariotto AB, Robin Yabroff K, Shao Y, Feuer EJ, Brown ML. Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103(2):117–128.
2. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on 2019 submission data (1999-2017): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; www.cdc.gov/cancer/dataviz, released in June 2020.
3. Campbell KP, Lanza A, Dixon R, Chattopadhyay S, Molinari N, Finch RA, editors. A Purchaser’s Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: Moving Science into Coverage. Washington, DC: National Business Group on Health; 2006.