Cervical Cancer Evaluation Measures
Once a company has conducted assessment and planning for cervical cancer screening programs and developed the specific tasks of implementation for these programs, it is time to develop the evaluation plan. This evaluation plan should be in place before any program implementation has begun.
Metrics for worker productivity, health care costs, health outcomes, and organizational change allow measurement of the beginning (baseline), middle (process), and results (outcome) of workplace health programs. It is not necessary to use all these metrics for evaluating programs. Some information may be difficult or costly to collect or may not fit the operational structure of a company. These lists are only suggested approaches that may be useful in designing an evaluation plan.
These measures are designed for employee group assessment. They are not intended for examining an individual’s progress over time, which would raise concerns of employee confidentiality. For employer purposes, individual-level measures should be collected anonymously and only reported (typically by a third-party administrator) in the aggregate, because the company’s major concerns are overall changes in productivity, health care costs, and employee satisfaction.
In general, data from the previous 12 months will provide sufficient baseline information and can be used in establishing the program goals and objectives in the planning phase, and in assessing progress toward goals in the evaluation phase. Ongoing measurements every 6 to 12 months after programs begin are usually appropriate measurement intervals, but measurement timing should be adapted to the expectations of the specific program.
Cervical Cancer screening is a valuable early detection tool that can identify cervical cancer at an early stage when treatment is more effective and less expensive.
- In 2017, nearly 13,000 women in the United States were diagnosed with cervical cancer, and about 4,000 died from the disease1
- The average annual medical cost of cervical cancer varies widely depending on the phase of treatment. For example, the average mean cost of care during the last year of life could be as high as $118,000*(a) for patients younger than 65 years and as high as $79,000 for those older than 65.2
- HPV infection and tobacco use increase the risk of cervical cancer
- One study estimated that the cost-effectiveness ratio of a conventional Pap test repeated every three years up to the age of 75 was $11,830 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) saved (in year 2000 dollars).3 In comparison with other preventive interventions and with cost-effectiveness benchmarks, cervical cancer screening is highly cost-effective4
*Cost were measured in a2010 US dollars.
1. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on 2019 submission data (1999-2017): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; www.cdc.gov/cancer/dataviz, released in June 2020.
2. Mariotto AB, Robin Yabroff K, Shao Y, Feuer EJ, Brown ML. Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103(2):117–128.
3. Mandelblatt JS, Lawrence WF, Womack SM, Jacobson D, Bin YI, Yi-Ting H. et al. Benefits and costs of using HPV testing to screen for cervical cancer. JAMA. 2002; 287(18): 2372-2381.
4. Eichler H, Kong SX, Gerth WC, Mavros P, Jonsson B. Use of cost-effectiveness analysis in health-care resource allocation decision-making: how are cost-effectiveness thresholds expected to emerge? Value Health. 2004; 7(5): 518-528.