Smoking and COPD

What Is COPD?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems. COPD includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis.1

With COPD, less air flows through the airways—the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs—because of one or more of the following:2

  • The airways and tiny air sacs in the lungs lose their ability to stretch and shrink back.
  • The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed.
  • The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed (irritated and swollen).
  • The airways make more mucus than usual, which can clog them and block airflow.

In the early stages of COPD, there may be no symptoms, or you may only have mild symptoms. As COPD worsens, the symptoms may become more severe. Symptoms of COPD include:2

  • A cough that lingers for a long time and doesn’t go away completely, or a cough that produces a lot of mucus
  • Shortness of breath, especially with physical activity
  • Wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe)
  • Tightness in the chest

Not everyone with these symptoms has COPD. A doctor can determine if you have COPD or another condition that has similar symptoms.

How severe your COPD symptoms are depends on how much lung damage you have. If you continue smoking, the damage will occur faster than if you stop smoking.2

How Is Smoking Related to COPD?

COPD is usually caused by cigarette smoking, though long-term exposure to other lung irritants, like secondhand smoke, can also contribute to COPD.2,3 As many as 1 out of 4 Americans with COPD never smoked cigarettes.4 However, smoking accounts for as many as 8 out of 10 COPD-related deaths3 and 38% of the nearly 16 million U.S. adults diagnosed with COPD report being current smokers.5

Smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during childhood and teenage years can slow lung growth and development. This can increase the risk of developing COPD in adulthood.3,6

How Can COPD Be Prevented?

The best way to prevent COPD is to never start smoking, and if you do smoke, to quit.6 Talk with your doctor or other health care professional about resources that can help you quit, like counseling and medication. Also, stay away from secondhand smoke, which is smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, hookah, or pipes.3,7 Secondhand smoke also is smoke that has been exhaled, or breathed out, by a person smoking, or that comes from the end of a lit tobacco product.2,7

How Is COPD Treated?

COPD has no cure yet. However, lifestyle changes and treatments can help you breathe easier, stay more active, and slow the progress of the disease. Talk to your doctor about the following lifestyle changes and treatments:1,2

  • Quit smoking. For people who smoke, the most important part of treatment is smoking cessation.
  • Avoid secondhand smoke at home and at work.
  • Ask your doctor or other health care professional about pulmonary rehabilitation (PR)external icon.8 PR is a personalized treatment program that teaches COPD management strategies to improve quality of life. It can include techniques on how to breathe better and conserve energy, advice on food and exercise, and counseling and support.
  • Avoid lung infections. Lung infections can cause serious problems in people with COPD. Certain vaccines, such as flu and pneumococcal vaccines, are especially important for people with COPD. Respiratory infections should be treated with antibiotics, if appropriate.
  • Take medication. Symptoms such as coughing or wheezing may be treated with medication prescribed by your doctor.
  • Use supplemental oxygen. Some people may need to have oxygen tanks in their home or use portable oxygen tanks if their blood oxygen levels are low.

Surgery may benefit some people with COPD who have severe symptoms that have not improved with other treatments:2

  • Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS): Surgery to remove diseased parts of the lung so healthier lung tissue can work better. LVRS is not a cure for COPD.
  • Lung transplant: Surgery in which one or two healthy lungs from a donor are put in the patient’s body to replace diseased lungs. A lung transplant is a last resort.

Additional Resources

The following resources provide information and support to people with COPD and their caregivers:

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basics About COPD [last updated 2018 June 5; accessed 2019 Feb 13].
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. COPD external icon[accessed 2019 February 13].
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2018 Dec 7].
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Among Adults—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2012;61(46):938–43 [accessed 2019 February 13].
  5. Wheaton AG, Cunningham TJ, Ford ES, Croft JB. Employment and Activity Limitations Among Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease — United States, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015:64 (11):290–295 [accessed 2019 Feb 13].
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A Report of the Surgeon General. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: We CAN Make the Next Generation Tobacco-Free. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2012 [accessed 2018 Dec 10].
  7. National Toxicology Program. Report on Carcinogens, Tobacco-Related Exposures, Fourteenth Edition pdf icon[PDF – 311KB]external icon. Research Triangle Park (NC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 2016 [accessed 2018 Dec 7].
  8. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Pulmonary Rehabilitation.external icon [accessed 2019 February 14].
Leonard
Meet Leonard

Leonard, an American actor best known for his role as Spock on the popular television and film series Star Trek, started smoking as a teenager. He finally quit for good after 37 years, but his lungs were badly damaged. Leonard was diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which led to his death in February 2015.


Real stories about COPD