Information for Pediatric Healthcare Providers
This content provides clinicians and public health professionals with key information and evidence for clinical considerations when diagnosing and managing pediatric patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. For evidence-based treatment recommendations for COVID-19, visit the National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines prepared by the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel. Also see the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Critical Updates on COVID-19 and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Variants of the Virus and Vaccines for COVID-19.
Summary of Recent Changes
- Incubation Period and Clinical Presentation
- Severity and Underlying Medical Conditions
- Testing, Diagnosis, and Recommendations for Isolation
- Laboratory and Radiographic Findings
The epidemiology of COVID-19 in the pediatric population has been challenging to establish for several reasons, including the high prevalence of asymptomatic infection and differences in testing rates between children and adults1,2. Studies have found that compared with adults, children may have similar or higher incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection but more frequently experience asymptomatic infection or less severe symptoms3,4,5.
The incubation period for COVID-19 is thought to extend to 14 days, but studies suggest that incubation periods may differ by variant of the virus.
A study conducted during high levels of Delta variant transmission reported a mean incubation period of 4.3 days, but the mean incubation periods of other variants, including Alpha and Beta, was 5 days6. Studies performed during high levels of Omicron variant transmission reported a median incubation period of 3 - 4 days7,8.
The most common symptoms of COVID-19 in children are fever and cough, but many children can experience sore throat, rhinorrhea, headache, fatigue, shortness of breath, or gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea9,10,11,12. Some case studies conducted during high levels of Omicron variant transmission have reported a substantial increase in croup during a decline in the prevalence of all other respiratory viral pathogens known to cause croup13,14.
The signs and symptoms of COVID-19 in children can be similar to those of other infections and noninfectious processes, making symptom-based screening for identification of SARS-CoV-2 in children particularly challenging15. Testing for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered, even in children with mild symptoms.
Most children with SARS-CoV-2 infection experience asymptomatic or mild illness, but some children are at risk of developing severe illness, including hospitalization, admission to an ICU, placement on invasive mechanical ventilation, and death16. Studies have found that some underlying medical conditions including obesity; diabetes; cardiac, lung, and neurologic disorders; and medical complexity increase the risk of severe outcomes from COVID-1917,18,19,20, and having more than one pre-existing comorbidity is associated with an increased risk of severe illness18,21.
Studies have found that age may also be associated with risk of severe illness, and an evaluation of surveillance data from children aged >7 days and <18 years reported that infants made up a disproportionate number of severe acute COVID-19 cases22. Similarly, a study of hospitalization rates among children aged 0-17 years found that COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates among children and adolescents during the Omicron period were four times as high as rates during the peak of the Delta period, and children aged 0-4 years experienced the largest increase in hospitalization rates23. The rate of hospitalization among infants may be increased by the greater need for evaluation in young infants with fever, prematurity, the propensity for very young children to develop viral co-infection, and ineligibility for vaccination, among other factors24,17,19. Adolescents aged 12-17 years also have experienced higher COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates compared to children aged 5-11 years17.
In addition to individual risk factors, the COVID-19 variant that is circulating at the time of infection could have an impact on disease severity. Compared to prior periods, studies among children aged 0-17 years conducted during the Delta variant predominant period found increased rates of hospitalization25,26. Studies that compared the Delta- to the Omicron- predominant period found increased rates of hospitalization during the Omicron-predominant period, but pediatric patients experienced less severe disease during the Omicron-predominant period than in previous waves23,27,28.
Studies have found that vaccination is effective at reducing risk of hospitalization29 in children and adolescents and critical illness in adolescents29,30. A study conducted during Omicron predominance found that the effectiveness of a 2-dose mRNA vaccine against symptomatic infection decreased rapidly, and among adolescents, vaccine effectiveness increased after a booster dose31. Completion of a 2-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for COVID-19, including for critical illness, among infants younger than 6 months of age32. Recommendations and clinical considerations for administration of COVID-19 vaccination can be found at CDC’s Interim Clinical Considerations for Use of COVID-19 Vaccines.
Some children who are at risk for severe disease may benefit from early COVID-19 testing and antiviral treatment.
Information on Testing Strategies:
Information on Antiviral Treatment Options:
EVUSHELD™, a monoclonal antibody combination that was used for pre-exposure prophylaxis to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, is not currently authorized for emergency use in the United States because it is unlikely to be active against certain SARS-CoV-2 variants. According to the most recent CDC Nowcast data, these variants are projected to be responsible for more than 90% of current infections in the U.S. This means that EVUSHELD™ is not expected to provide protection against developing COVID-19 if exposed to those variants. Healthcare facilities and providers with EVUSHELD™ should retain all products in the event that SARS-CoV-2 variants that are neutralized by EVUSHELD™ become more prevalent in the U.S. in the future. For more information, see FDA’s announcement.
- Recommend eligible patients and members of their household stay up to date with COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccination of household members may prevent opportunities for transmission to young children who are ineligible for vaccination. Vaccination of children in households may protect other household members. See the CDC’s Interim Clinical Considerations for Use of COVID-19 Vaccines.
- Consider early treatment with COVID therapeutics for eligible patients at risk for severe illness. See the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines for treatment recommendations.
- Encourage patients to keep appointments for routine care and adhere to treatment regimens to optimize care of chronic and complex conditions. See the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Guidance on Providing Pediatric Well-care During COVID-19.
- Encourage patients to complete vaccinations for vaccine-preventable diseases according to CDC immunization schedules.
Testing of Children
Viral tests, including nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and antigen tests, are recommended to diagnose acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Testing is important to identify infection and prevent transmission of COVID-19. People who have symptoms of COVID-19 and close contacts of people with COVID-19 should be tested. More information on testing guidelines and strategies can be found at the CDC’s Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2, the Virus that Causes COVID-19 webpage and the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) recommendations for At-Home COVID-19 Antigen Testing. Recommendations on isolation can be found at the CDC’s Interim Guidance on Ending Isolation and Precautions for People with COVID-19 and the Isolation and Precautions for People with COVID-19 webpage.
Testing of Newborns
Most infants born to people with COVID-19 do not test positive for the virus at birth33, so the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing healthy infants born to people infected with SARS-CoV-2 at least once before hospital discharge, and as close to discharge as practical. Newborns with signs and symptoms of COVID-19 should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 immediately.
Testing in Schools
Schools may offer diagnostic testing for students and staff with symptoms of COVID-19 or who were exposed to someone with COVID-19. When COVID-19 community levels are high, schools can consider implementing screening testing for students and staff, for high-risk activities (for example, close contact sports, band, choir, theater), and at key times in the year, for example before/after large events (such as prom, tournaments, group travel) and when returning from breaks (such as, holidays, spring break, at the beginning of the school year). Testing, along with COVID-19 vaccination, proper masking, and other mitigation strategies can help prevent transmission among students, staff, and family members. More information on testing and other recommendations for prevention of COVID-19 in the school setting can be found on the CDC’s Operational Guidance for K-12 Schools and Early Care and Education Programs to Support Safe In-Person Learning webpage.
For CDC’s current recommendations for prevention of COVID-19 in healthcare and community settings see:
In addition to viral testing, many hospitalized and ambulatory patients will be evaluated with laboratory tests and radiographic studies. Many children will have abnormal vital signs and markers of inflammation when hospitalized for COVID-1916. A study of over 10,000 hospitalized children found that lower blood pressure, higher heart and respiratory rate, and abnormal markers of inflammation, including D-dimers and ferritin were associated with severe illness in children16.
Chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) images of children with COVID-19 are frequently normal34,35, but chest radiographs may demonstrate patchy infiltrates or opacities34,36. The most common CT finding is patchy ground-glass opacification35.
Most children with COVID-19 experience asymptomatic or mild to moderate infections that can be managed in the outpatient setting. Outpatient management can include supportive care, consideration of therapeutics in eligible patients at risk for progression to severe illness, and education on measures to decrease the risk of transmission.
Recommendations on clinical management:
- General Management of Nonhospitalized Patients with Acute COVID-19 (NIH)
- Management Strategies in Children and Adolescents with Mild to Moderate COVID-19 (AAP)
Some children with COVID-19 will experience severe to critical illness that will require hospitalization. Management of severe to critical COVID-19 may include treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, cardiac dysfunction, thromboembolic disease, hepatic or renal dysfunction, central nervous system disease, and exacerbation of underlying comorbidities. Some, but not all, of the medications authorized for the treatment of severe to critical COVID-19 in adults, have been authorized for use in children. More information on therapeutic and clinical management of children with severe to critical COVID-19 can be found in the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines.
MIS-C generally occurs 2-6 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it presents with fever, multisystem organ involvement, and elevated laboratory markers of inflammation. Patients with MIS-C are often critically ill, and studies suggest that more than 50% of patients can require ICU admission37,38,39. Diagnosing MIS-C can be difficult because the presentation of MIS-C may overlap with that of other conditions, including Kawasaki Disease, toxic shock syndrome, and severe acute COVID-1938,39.
It is important to consider alternative diagnoses when evaluating children suspected of having MIS-C and to pursue testing to evaluate multisystem involvement as indicated.
Studies suggest that being vaccinated provides protection from MIS-C41,42, and it is thus important to encourage all families to keep children who are eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine up to date on vaccination41. Clinical treatment guidelines for MIS-C that describe diagnosis and treatment options have been developed by the American College of Rheumatology, the National Institutes of Health, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. For information to assist providers in speaking with patients and families about MIS-C, see Talking with Families and Caregivers.
More information on MIS-C diagnosis and treatment considerations:
PCCs are a wide range of new, returning, or ongoing symptoms or health conditions people can experience 4 or more weeks after first being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. Symptoms can last for extended periods of time. Children experience post-COVID conditions, but they appear to be affected less frequently than adults. Estimates of the proportion of children who experience COVID-19 and later develop post-COVID conditions range widely42. Rates of post-COVID conditions seem to increase with age among children and adolescents, and PCCs are found more often in people who had severe acute COVID-19 illness than in people with mild or asymptomatic illness42,43. Commonly reported symptoms in children can include headache and fatigue, but many organ systems can be involved and some children experience multiple symptoms42,43. Some studies of post-COVID conditions in children report that symptoms typically do not persist beyond 12 weeks42, while others have found that symptoms can linger for longer periods43,44. Additional research is needed to learn more about symptoms associated with post-COVID conditions in the pediatric population.
When caring for patients with post-COVID conditions, clinicians can consult CDC’s General Clinical Considerations for suggestions on initial diagnostic and follow-up evaluation.
More information on PCCs:
During 2020–2021, there were significant declines in outpatient pediatric visits and well-child check-ups, and many children have missed recommended screenings and vaccinations45,46,47, 48.
The CDC recommends Healthcare providers use the Catch-up Immunization schedule to immunize children who are more than one month behind on immunizations, and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) provides clinical Guidance on Providing Pediatric Well-Care During COVID-19. For general guidance on pediatric preventive care, see the Bright Futures/AAP’s Periodicity Schedule for Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care and screenings by age and the CDC’s Immunization Schedule for ages 18 years or younger.
- Hyde Z. COVID‐19, children and schools: overlooked and at risk. Medical Journal of Australia. 2021;214:190-191. doi:doi:10.5694/mja2.50934
- Wald ER, Schmit KM, Gusland DY. A Pediatric Infectious Disease Perspective on COVID-19. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2021-05-04 2021;72(9):1660-1666. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1095
- Dawood FS, Porucznik CA, Veguilla V, et al. Incidence Rates, Household Infection Risk, and Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Children and Adults in Utah and New York City, New York. JAMA Pediatr. Jan 1 2022;176(1):59-67. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.4217
- Laws RL, Chancey RJ, Rabold EM, et al. Symptoms and Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Among Children – Utah and Wisconsin, March-May 2020. Pediatrics. Jan 2021;147(1)doi:10.1542/peds.2020-027268
- Wiegand R, Deng Y, Deng X, et al. Estimated SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Seroprevalence and Infection to Case Ratio Trends in 50 States and District of Columbia, United States—October 25, 2020, to February 26, 2022. 2022;
- Grant R, Charmet T, Schaeffer L, et al. Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant on incubation, transmission settings and vaccine effectiveness: Results from a nationwide case-control study in France. The Lancet Regional Health – Europe. 2022/02/01/ 2022;13:100278. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100278
- Song JS, Lee J, Kim M, et al. Serial Intervals and Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant, South Korea, 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. Mar 2022;28(3):756-759. doi:10.3201/eid2803.212607
- Jansen L, Tegomoh B, Lange K, et al. Investigation of a SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Variant Cluster – Nebraska, November-December 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Dec 31 2021;70(5152):1782-1784. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm705152e3
- Zhu F, Ang JY. COVID-19 Infection in Children: Diagnosis and Management. Current Infectious Disease Reports. 2022;24(4):51-62. doi:10.1007/s11908-022-00779-0
- Eric J. Chow JAE. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infections in Children. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 2022;36(2):435-479. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2022.01.005
- Siebach MK, Piedimonte G, Ley SH. COVID‐19 in childhood: Transmission, clinical presentation, complications and risk factors. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2021;56(6):1342-1356. doi:10.1002/ppul.25344
- Rubens JH, Akindele NP, Tschudy MM, Sick-Samuels AC. Acute covid-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. BMJ. 2021:n385. doi:10.1136/bmj.n385
- Sharma S, Agha B, Delgado C, et al. Croup Associated With SARS-CoV-2: Pediatric Laryngotracheitis During the Omicron Surge. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 2022;doi:10.1093/jpids/piac032
- Brewster RC, Parsons C, Laird-Gion J, et al. COVID-19–Associated Croup in Children. Pediatrics. 2022;149(6)doi:10.1542/peds.2022-056492
- Poline J, Gaschignard J, Leblanc C, et al. Systematic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Screening at Hospital Admission in Children: A French Prospective Multicenter Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2021;72(12):2215-2217. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1044
- Martin B, Dewitt PE, Russell S, et al. Characteristics, Outcomes, and Severity Risk Factors Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Children in the US National COVID Cohort Collaborative. JAMA Network Open. 2022;5(2):e2143151. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.43151
- Wanga V, Gerdes ME, Shi DS, et al. Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Children and Adolescents Aged <18 Years Hospitalized with COVID-19 – Six Hospitals, United States, July-August 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Dec 31 2021;70(5152):1766-1772. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm705152a3
- Woodruff RC, Campbell AP, Taylor CA, et al. Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19 in Children. Pediatrics. 2022;149(1):e2021053418. doi:10.1542/peds.2021-053418
- Kompaniyets L, Agathis NT, Nelson JM, et al. Underlying Medical Conditions Associated With Severe COVID-19 Illness Among Children. JAMA Netw Open. Jun 1 2021;4(6):e2111182. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11182
- Shi DS, Whitaker M, Marks KJ, et al. Hospitalizations of Children Aged 5-11 Years with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 – COVID-NET, 14 States, March 2020-February 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Apr 22 2022;71(16):574-581. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7116e1
- Preston LE, Chevinsky JR, Kompaniyets L, et al. Characteristics and Disease Severity of US Children and Adolescents Diagnosed With COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open. Apr 1 2021;4(4):e215298. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.5298
- Hobbs CV, Woodworth K, Young CC, et al. Frequency, Characteristics and Complications of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Mar 1 2022;41(3):e81-e86. doi:10.1097/inf.0000000000003435
- Marks KJ, Whitaker M, Anglin O, et al. Hospitalizations of Children and Adolescents with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 – COVID-NET, 14 States, July 2021-January 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Feb 18 2022;71(7):271-278. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7107e4
- Marks KJ, Whitaker M, Agathis NT, et al. Hospitalization of Infants and Children Aged 0-4 Years with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 – COVID-NET, 14 States, March 2020-February 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Mar 18 2022;71(11):429-436. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7111e2
- Delahoy MJ, Ujamaa D, Whitaker M, et al. Hospitalizations Associated with COVID-19 Among Children and Adolescents – COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1, 2020-August 14, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Sep 10 2021;70(36):1255-1260. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7036e2
- Siegel DA, Reses HE, Cool AJ, et al. Trends in COVID-19 Cases, Emergency Department Visits, and Hospital Admissions Among Children and Adolescents Aged 0-17 Years – United States, August 2020-August 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Sep 10 2021;70(36):1249-1254. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7036e1
- Cloete J, Kruger A, Masha M, et al. Paediatric hospitalisations due to COVID-19 during the first SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant wave in South Africa: a multicentre observational study. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2022;6(5):294-302. doi:10.1016/s2352-4642(22)00027-x
- Torjesen I. Covid-19: Omicron variant is linked to steep rise in hospital admissions of very young children. BMJ. 2022:o110. doi:10.1136/bmj.o110
- Price AM, Olson SM, Newhams MM, et al. BNT162b2 Protection against the Omicron Variant in Children and Adolescents. N Engl J Med. May 19 2022;386(20):1899-1909. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2202826
- Olson SM, Newhams MM, Halasa NB, et al. Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA Vaccination Against COVID-19 Hospitalization Among Persons Aged 12-18 Years – United States, June-September 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Oct 22 2021;70(42):1483-1488. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7042e1
- Fleming-Dutra KE, Britton A, Shang N, et al. Association of Prior BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccination With Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children and Adolescents During Omicron Predominance. Jama. Jun 14 2022;327(22):2210-2219. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.7493
- Halasa NB, Olson SM, Staat MA, et al. Maternal Vaccination and Risk of Hospitalization for Covid-19 among Infants. N Engl J Med. Jul 14 2022;387(2):109-119. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2204399
- Olsen EOM, Roth NM, Aveni K, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2 infections among neonates born to pregnant people with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection: Maternal, pregnancy and birth characteristics. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 2022;doi:10.1111/ppe.12883
- Patel NA. Pediatric COVID-19: Systematic review of the literature. American Journal of Otolaryngology. 2020/09/01/ 2020;41(5):102573. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102573
- Nino G, Zember J, Sanchez‐Jacob R, Gutierrez MJ, Sharma K, Linguraru MG. Pediatric lung imaging features of COVID‐19: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2021;56(1):252-263. doi:10.1002/ppul.25070
- Rostad BS, Shah JH, Rostad CA, et al. Chest radiograph features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) compared to pediatric COVID-19. Pediatric Radiology. 2021;51(2):231-238. doi:10.1007/s00247-020-04921-9
- Belay ED, Abrams J, Oster ME, et al. Trends in Geographic and Temporal Distribution of US Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Pediatr. Aug 1 2021;175(8):837-845. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0630
- Feldstein LR, Tenforde MW, Friedman KG, et al. Characteristics and Outcomes of US Children and Adolescents With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Compared With Severe Acute COVID-19. JAMA. 2021;325(11):1074. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.2091
- Godfred-Cato S, Abrams JY, Balachandran N, et al. Distinguishing Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children From COVID-19, Kawasaki Disease and Toxic Shock Syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Apr 1 2022;41(4):315-323. doi:10.1097/inf.0000000000003449
- Zambrano LD, Newhams MM, Olson SM, et al. Effectiveness of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA Vaccination Against Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Among Persons Aged 12-18 Years – United States, July-December 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Jan 14 2022;71(2):52-58. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7102e1
- Levy M, Recher M, Hubert H, et al. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children by COVID-19 Vaccination Status of Adolescents in France. Jama. Jan 18 2022;327(3):281-283. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.23262
- Zimmermann P, Pittet LF, Curtis N. How Common is Long COVID in Children and Adolescents? Pediatr Infect Dis J. Dec 1 2021;40(12):e482-e487. doi:10.1097/inf.0000000000003328
- Kikkenborg Berg S, Dam Nielsen S, Nygaard U, et al. Long COVID symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-positive adolescents and matched controls (LongCOVIDKidsDK): a national, cross-sectional study. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2022;6(4):240-248. doi:10.1016/s2352-4642(22)00004-9
- Borch L, Holm M, Knudsen M, Ellermann-Eriksen S, Hagstroem S. Long COVID symptoms and duration in SARS-CoV-2 positive children — a nationwide cohort study. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2022;181(4):1597-1607. doi:10.1007/s00431-021-04345-z
- Courtney JG, Chuke SO, Dyke K, et al. Decreases in Young Children Who Received Blood Lead Level Testing During COVID-19 – 34 Jurisdictions, January-May 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Feb 5 2021;70(5):155-161. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7005a2
- Patel Murthy B, Zell E, Kirtland K, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Administration of Selected Routine Childhood and Adolescent Vaccinations – 10 U.S. Jurisdictions, March-September 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Jun 11 2021;70(23):840-845. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7023a2
- Santoli JM, Lindley MC, DeSilva MB, et al. Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Routine Pediatric Vaccine Ordering and Administration – United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. May 15 2020;69(19):591-593. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6919e2
- Ackerson BK, Sy LS, Glenn SC, et al. Pediatric Vaccination During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Pediatrics. 2021;148(1):e2020047092. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-047092
- Revisions were made on October 17, 2022, to include new information about COVID-19 relevant for pediatric healthcare providers.
As of December 30, 2020
- Revisions were made on December 30, 2020 to include new information about COVID-19 relevant for pediatric healthcare providers. Revisions were also made to make the webpage easier to use and understand.
- We are learning more about COVID-19 every day. The information may be updated at any time, subject to change as the science evolves.
As of August 14, 2020
- Revisions were made to reflect new evidence about COVID-19 in children.