Oil Spill Response Resources: Chemical Dispersant Research
Chemical Dispersant Research
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted laboratory tests in which laboratory rats were exposed for five hours to airborne concentrations of the oil dispersant COREXIT 9500A and responses were monitored at one day and seven days post-exposure. Six abstracts from the research by NIOSH scientists and colleagues were presented at the Experimental Biology Meeting, April 9-13, 2011, and published online in April 2011 in The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). A seventh abstract was presented at the 2011 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, March 2011, and published online in The Toxicologist, March 2011. In addition, six studies were published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health.
In a follow up study, NIOSH scientists conducted additional laboratory studies in rats to evaluate the effects of the oil dispersant after longer (nine days) exposure. The responses were monitored at one day and seven days post-exposure. An abstract was presented at the 2016 Society of Toxicology annual meeting, March 2016, and published online in The Toxicologist, March 2016.
The abstracts and studies address different aspects of the laboratory research, including a description of the process by which aerosolized droplets were generated for the tests, and findings one day and seven days after acute or short-term exposure. The findings alone do not provide sufficient information for definitive risk assessment. However, they do suggest avenues for additional research to help answer that question.
Recommendations that were made by NIOSH for reducing responders’ exposure to the dispersant during the Deepwater Horizon response, as a prudent practice to minimize risk of work-related respiratory and dermal effects, are posted here . Interim guidance by NIOSH and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration during the Deepwater Horizon response is posted here .
Links to the abstracts published online
- Sriram et al. external icon
- Goldsmith et al. external icon
- Anderson et al. external icon
- Roberts et al. external icon
- Shimko et al. external icon
- Krajnak et al. external icon
- Goldsmith et al. pdf iconexternal icon
Articles from the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health
- Potential Immunotoxicological Health Effects Following Exposure to COREXIT 9500A during Cleanup of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.external icon
Anderson SE, Franko J, Lukomska E, Meade BJ. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011 Nov 1;74(21):1419-30.
- Bioactivity of oil dispersant used in the deepwater horizon cleanup operation.external icon
Castranova V. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011 Nov 1;74(21):1367.
- A Computer-Controlled Whole-Body Inhalation Exposure System for the Oil Dispersant COREXIT EC9500A.external icon
Goldsmith WT, McKinney W, Jackson M, Law B, Bledsoe T, Siegel P, Cumpston J, Frazer D. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011 Nov 1;74(21):1368-80.
- Acute Effects of COREXIT EC9500A on Cardiovascular Functions in Rats.external icon
Krajnak K, Kan H, Waugh S, Miller GR, Johnson C, Roberts JR, Goldsmith WT, Jackson M, McKinney W, Frazer D, Kashon ML, Castranova V. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011 Nov 1;74(21):1397-404.
- Pulmonary Effects after Acute Inhalation of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A) in Rats.external icon
Roberts JR, Reynolds JS, Thompson JA, Zaccone EJ, Shimko MJ, Goldsmith WT, Jackson M, McKinney W, Frazer DG, Kenyon A, Kashon ML, Piedimonte G, Castranova V, Fedan JS. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011 Nov 1;74(21):1381-96.
- Neurotoxicity Following Acute Inhalation Exposure to the Oil Dispersant COREXIT EC9500A.external icon
Sriram K, Lin GX, Jefferson AM, Goldsmith WT, Jackson M, McKinney W, Frazer DG, Robinson VA, Castranova V. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011 Nov 1;74(21):1405-18.
- Sriram K, Lin G, Jefferson A, Goldsmith W, Jackson M, McKinney W, Fedan J, Frazer D . Neurochemical perturbations and dopaminergic injury following short-term inhalation exposure to the oil dispersant COREXIT® EC9500A. Toxicologist 150(1):317.