Selected Publications

Listeriosis Outbreaks Associated with Soft Cheeses, United States, 1998–2014
Image of poster for Emerging Infectious Diseases

Abstract: Since 2006, the number of reported U.S. listeriosis outbreaks associated with cheese made under unsanitary conditions has increased. Two-thirds were linked to Latin-style soft cheese, often affecting pregnant Hispanic women and their newborns. Adherence to pasteurization protocols and sanitation measures to avoid contamination after pasteurization can reduce future outbreaks.

Podcast: CDC surveillance coordinator Kelly Jackson discusses outbreaks of Listeria infection linked to soft cheeses in the United States.

  • Listeriosis. In: Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 20th ed. APHA
    Iwamoto M, Olson C, Schlundt J, Martin P. Editor: Heymann D. 19th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. 2014.
  • Listeriosis in humans. In: Listeria, listeriosis, and food safety, 3rd ed. CRC Press
    Painter J, Slutsker L. Editors: Ryser ET, Marth EH. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis Group; 2007 Mar 27. p. 85–110.
  • The epidemiology of human listeriosis. DOI PubMed
    Swaminathan B, Gerner-Smidt P. Microbes Infect. 2007 Aug; 9(10): 1236–43.
  • Listeriosis. In: Emerging Infections 4. DOI
    Slutsker L, Evans MC, Schuchat A. Editors: Scheld WM, Craig WA, Hughes JM. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2000 Sep. p. 83–106.
Surveillance and Trends
  • Preliminary Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food – Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2016-2019. MMWR PubMed
    Tack DM, Ray L, Griffin PM, Cieslak PR, Dunn J, Rissman T, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 May; 69(17): 509–14.
  • Differences among incidence rates of invasive listeriosis in the United States FoodNet population by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and pregnancy status, 2008–2016. DOI PubMed
    Pohl AM, Pouillot R, Bazaco MC, Wolpert BJ, Healy JM, Bruce BB, et al.  Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2019 Apr; 16(4): 290–297.
  • Implementation of nationwide whole-genome sequencing to enhance listeriosis outbreak detection and investigation. DOI PubMed
    Jackson BR, Tarr C, Strain E, Jackson KA, Conrad A, Carleton H, et al. Clin Infec Dis. 2016 April 18; 63(3): 380–86.
  • The global burden of listeriosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. DOI PubMed
    de Noordhout CM, Devleesschauwer B, Angulo FJ, Verbeke G, Haagsma J, Kirk M, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Nov; 14(11): 1073–82.
  • Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals. DOI PubMed
    Silk B, McCoy MH, Iwamoto M, Griffin PM. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 15; 59(4): 532–40.
  • Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2006–2013. MMWR PubMed
    Crim SM, Iwamoto M, Huang JY, Griffin PM, Gilliss D, Cronquist AB, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Apr; 63(15): 328–332.
  • Vital Signs: Listeria illnesses, deaths, and outbreaks—United States, 2009–2011. MMWR PubMed
    Silk BJ, Mahon BE, Griffin PM, Gould HL, Tauxe RV, Crim SM, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Jun; 62(22): 448–752.
  • Listeriosis outbreaks and associated food vehicles, United States, 1998–2008. DOI PubMed
    Cartwright EJ, Jackson KA, Johnson SD, Graves LM, Silk BJ, Mahon BE. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Jan; 19(1): 1–9.
  • Invasive listeriosis in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004–2009: further targeted prevention needed for higher-risk groups. DOI PubMed
    Silk BJ, Date KA, Jackson KA, Pouillot R, Holt KG, Graves LM, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun; 54(Suppl 5): S396–S404.
  • Relative risk of listeriosis in Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites according to age, pregnancy, and ethnicity. DOI PubMed
    Pouillot R, Hoelzer K, Jackson KA, Henao O, Silk BJ. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun; 54(Suppl 5): S405–S410.
  • Pregnancy-associated listeriosis. DOI PubMed
    Jackson KA, Iwamoto M, Swerdlow D. Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Oct; 138(10): 1503–9.
  • Reduction in the incidence of invasive listeriosis in Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network sites, 1996–2003. DOI PubMed
    Voetsch AC, Angulo FJ, Jones FJ, Moore MR, Nadon C, McCarthy P, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15; 44(4): 513–20. ERRATUM 2011 Aug; 53(4): 404.

Soft Cheeses

  • Listeriosis outbreaks Associated with soft cheeses, United States, 1998–2014. DOI PubMed
    Jackson K, Gould L, Hunter JC, Kucerova Z, Jackson B. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018; 24(6): 1116–18.
  • Multistate outbreak of listeriosis caused by imported cheese and evidence of cross-contamination of other cheeses, USA, 2012. DOI PubMed
    Heiman KE, Garalde VB, Gronostaj M, Jackson KA, Beam S, Joseph L, et al. Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Oct; 144(13): 2698–708.
  • Notes from the field: multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to soft-ripened cheese—United States, 2013. MMWR PubMed
    Choi MJ, Jackson KA, Medus C, Beal J, Rigdon CE, Cloyd TC, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Apr; 63(13): 294–95.
  • Multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes associated with Mexican-style cheese made from pasteurized milk among pregnant, Hispanic women. DOI PubMed
    Jackson KA, Biggerstaff M, Tobin-D’Angelo M, Sweat D, Klos R, Nosari J, et al. J Food Prot. 2011 Jun; 74(6): 949–53.
  • Outbreak of listeriosis among Mexican immigrants as a result of consumption of illicitly produced Mexican-style cheese. DOI PubMed
    MacDonald PD, Whitwam RE, Boggs JD, MacCormack JN, Anderson KL, Reardon JW, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Mar; 40(5): 677–82.
  • Outbreak of listeriosis associated with homemade Mexican-style cheese—North Carolina, October 2000–January 2001. MMWR PubMed
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001 Jul; 50(26): 560–62.


  • Multistate outbreak of listeriosis associated with packaged leafy green salads, United States and Canada, 2015–2016. DOI PubMed
    Self JL, Conrad A, Stroika S, Jackson A, Whitlock L, Jackson KA, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Aug; 25(8): 1461–1468.
  • Notes from the field: outbreak of listeriosis likely associated with prepackaged caramel apples — United States, 2017. MMWR PubMed
    Marus JR, Bidol S, Altman SM, et al.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Jan; 68(3): 76–77.
  • Notes from the field: outbreak of listeriosis associated with consumption of packaged salad — United States and Canada, 2015–2016. MMWR PubMed
    Self JL, Conrad A, Stroika S, et al.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Aug; 65(33): 879–881.
  • Use of whole genome sequencing and patient interviews to link a case of sporadic listeriosis to consumption of prepackaged lettuce. DOI PubMed
    Jackson KA, Stroika S, Katz LS, Beal J, Brandt E, Nadon C, et al. J Food Prot. 2016 May; 79(5): 806–9.
  • Notes from the field: listeriosis associated with stone fruit—United States, 2014. MMWR PubMed
    Jackson BR, Salter M, Tarr C, Conrad A, Harvey E, Steinbock L, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Mar; 64(10): 282–83.
  • Multistate outbreak of listeriosis associated with cantaloupe. DOI PubMed
    McCollum JT, Cronquist AB, Silk BJ, Jackson KA, O’Connor KA, Cosgrove S, et al. N Engl J Med. 2013 Sep; 369(10): 944–53.
  • Hospital-acquired listeriosis outbreak caused by contaminated diced celery—Texas, 2010. DOI PubMed
    Gaul LK, Farag NH, Shim T, Kingsley MA, Silk BJ, Hyytia-Trees E. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jan; 56(1): 20–26.
  • Multistate outbreak of listeriosis associated with Jensen Farms cantaloupe—United States, August–September 2011.MMWR PubMed
    Cosgrove S, Cronquist A, Wright G, Ghosh T, Vogt R, Teitell P, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Oct; 60(39): 1357–58.


  • Outbreak of invasive listeriosis associated with consumption of hog head cheese—Louisiana, 2010. MMWR PubMed
    Delaune E, Sokol T, Ratard R, Allen L, Kissler B, Seys S, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Apr; 60(13): 401–05.
  • Chicken salad as the source of a case of Listeria monocytogenes infection in Connecticut. DOI PubMed
    Marcus R, Hurd S, Mank L, Mshar P, Phan W, Jackson K, et al. J Food Prot. 2009 Dec; 72(12): 2602–06.
  • Nationwide outbreak of listeriosis due to contaminated meat. DOI PubMed
    Mead PS, Dunne EF, Graves LM, Wiedmann M, Patrick M, Hunter S, et al. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Aug; 134(4): 744–51.
  • Multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy. DOI PubMed
    Gottlieb SL, Newbern EC, Griffin PM, Graves LM, Hoekstra RM, Baker NL, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jan; 42(1): 29–36.
  • Multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection linked to delicatessen turkey meat. DOI PubMed
    Olsen SJ, Patrick M, Hunter SB, Reddy V, Kornstein L, MacKenzie WR, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1; 40(7): 962–67.
  • Outbreak of listeriosis—northeastern United States. MMWR PubMed
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002 Oct; 51(42): 950–51.


  • Outbreaks attributed to cheese: differences between outbreaks caused by unpasteurized and pasteurized dairy products, United States, 1998-2011. DOI PubMed
    Gould LH, Mungai E, Brehravesh CB. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Jul; 11(7): 545–51.
  • Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections associated with pasteurized milk from a local dairy—Massachusetts, 2007. MMWR PubMed
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Oct; 57(40): 1097–1100.
Laboratory Studies
  • Determination of evolutionary relationships of outbreak-associated Listeria monocytogenes strains of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b by whole-genome sequencing. DOI PubMed
    Bergholz TM, den Bakker HC, Katz LS, Silk BJ, Jackson KA, Kucerova Z, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Nov 20; 82(3): 928–38.
  • Genomic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes strains involved in a multistate listeriosis outbreak associated with cantaloupe in US. DOI PubMed
    Laksanalamai P, Joseph LA, Silk BJ, Burall LS, L Tarr C, Gerner-Smidt P, Datta AR. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7): e42448.
  • Subtyping Listeria monocytogenes. In: Listeria, Listeriosis, and Food Safety, 3rd ed. CRC Press
    Graves LM, Swaminathan B. Editors: Ryser ET, Marth EH. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis Group; 2007 Mar 27. p. 283-304.
  • Multicenter validation of a multiplex PCR assay for differentiating the major Listeria monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b: toward an international standard. DOI PubMed
    Doumith M, Jacquet C, Gerner-Smidt P, Graves LM, Loncarevic S, Mathisen T, et al. J Food Prot. 2005 Dec; 68(12): 2648–50.
  • Microbiological aspects of the investigation that traced the 1998 outbreak of listeriosis in the United States to contaminated hot dogs and establishment of molecular subtyping-based surveillance for Listeria monocytogenes in the PulseNet network. DOI PubMed
    Graves LM, Hunter SB, Ong AR, Schoonmaker-Bopp D, Hise K, Kornstein L, et al. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 May; 43(5): 2350–55.
  • Genetic markers unique to Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b differentiate epidemic cline II (hot dog outbreak strains) from other lineages. DOI PubMed
    Evans MR, Swaminathan B, Graves LM, Altermann E, Klaenhammer TR, Fink RC, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Apr; 70(4): 2383–90.
  • PulseNet standardized protocol for subtyping Listeria monocytogenes by macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. DOI PubMed
    Graves L, Swaminathan B. Int J Food Microbiol. 2001 Apr; 65(1–2): 55–62.
Other Topics
  • Two Listeria monocytogenes pseudo-outbreaks caused by contaminated laboratory culture media. DOI PubMed
    Matanock A, Katz LS, Jackson KA, Kuverova Z, Conrad AR, Glover WA, et al. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Mar; 54(3): 768–70.
  • Estimating the attack rate of pregnancy-associated listeriosis during a large outbreak. PMC PubMed
    Imanishi M, Routh JA, Klaber M, Gu W, Vanselow MS, Jackson KA, et al. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2015.
  • Cutaneous listeriosis. DOI PubMed
    Godshall C, Suh G, Lorber B. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Nov; 51(11): 3591–96.
  • New data, strategies, and insights for Listeria monocytogenes dose-response models: summary of an interagency workshop, 2011. DOI PubMed
    Hoelzer K, Chen Y, Dennis S, Evans P, Pouillot R, Silk BJ, et al. Risk Anal. 2013 Sep; 33(9): 1568–81.
  • Listeria monocytogenes in donated platelets—a potential transfusion transmitted pathogen intercepted through screening. DOI PubMed
    Menon M, Graves L, McCombs K, Hise K, Silk BJ, Kuehnert M, et al. Transfusion. 2013 Sep; 53(9): 1974–78.
  • Vision loss following intraocular listeriosis associated with contaminated cantaloupe. DOI PubMed
    Ibraheem M, Vance S, Jackson KA, Ettestad P, Smelser C, Silk B. Case Rep Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun; 4(2): 7–11.
  • Listera monocytogenes: Maternal-foetal infections in Denmark 1994-2005. DOI PubMed
    Smith B, Kemp M, Ethelberg S, Schiellerup P, Bruun BG, Gerner-Smidt P, et al. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009 Jul; 41(1): 21–25.
  • Listeria monocytogenes infection from foods prepared in a commercial establishment: a case-control study of potential sources of sporadic illness in the United States. DOI PubMed
    Varma JK, Samuel MC, Marcus R, Hoekstra RM, Medus C, Segler S, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb; 44(4): 521–28.
  • Listeria and Erysipelothrix. In: Manual of clinical microbiology, 8th ed. Bille J, Rocourt J, Swaminathan B. Editor: Murray P. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2003. p. 461–71.
  • Neurolisteriosis presenting as recurrent transient ischemic attacks. DOI PubMed
    Staudinger R, Levine D, Swaminathan B, Zagzag D. Ann Neurol. 2000 Oct; 48(4): 661–65.