Tuberculosis

Created on September 11, 2012, this photograph was captured inside the Prince Cyril Zulu Clinic, the largest government out-patient TB, and STD treatment facility in Durban, South Africa. In this view a clinical radiologist was reviewing a patient’s chest x-ray, discussing her findings with a colleague. The U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supports HIV & TB research at Prince Cyril Zulu Clinic, where results inform the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S., as to appropriate guidelines to be followed when treating co-infected patients, and preventing the spread of diseases.

Inside Prince Cyril Zulu Clinic, the largest government out-patient TB, and STD treatment facility in Durban, South Africa, a clinical radiologist reviews a patient’s chest x-ray.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.

What is the global impact of tuberculosis?

  • In 2018, 1.7 billion people were infected by TB bacteria — roughly 23% of the world’s population. TB is the leading infectious disease killer in the world, claiming 1.5 million lives each year.
  • Of the 10 million individuals who became ill with TB in 2018, approximately three million were “missed” by health systems and do not get the care they need, allowing the disease to continue to be transmitted.
  • Resistance to anti-TB drugs can occur when these drugs are misused or mismanaged. Examples include when patients do not complete their full course of treatment; when health-care providers prescribe the wrong treatment, the wrong dose, or length of time for taking the drugs; when the supply of drugs is not always available; or when the drugs are of poor quality.
  • Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is TB resistant to two of the most important drugs used to treat TB: Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampin (RIF).
  • Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a rare type of MDR-TB that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (i.e., amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin). Because XDR-TB is resistant to the most potent TB drugs, patients are left with treatment options that are much less effective.
  • XDR-TB is of special concern for persons with HIV infection or other conditions that can weaken the immune system. These persons are more likely to develop TB disease once they are infected, and also have a higher risk of death once they develop TB.

Who is at risk?

  • Because the reach of TB is so broad, to effectively and fully address MDR-TB in the U.S., MDR-TB must be addressed globally in the places hardest hit. TB anywhere is TB everywhere – it spreads from person to person and doesn’t respect borders. Recent models show that unless we scale up efforts to address this growing threat, the number of people dying from drug-resistant TB will nearly double every 5 years.

What is CDC doing?

  • CDC conducts a wide range of activities to find, cure, and prevent TB, including
    • Developing innovative approaches to find and treat the roughly 4 million people each year who develop TB disease who are either undiagnosed, unreported, or inappropriately treated
    • Strengthening lab networks and surveillance systems to allow for fast and accurate diagnosis of TB cases
    • Identifying the best methods to diagnose TB among children and people living with HIV
    • Conducting research to identify better, less toxic treatment regimens that cure patients faster
    • Shoring up basic TB prevention and infection control efforts around the world to break the cycle of transmission and prevent the development of drug resistance
    • Establishing best practices to end TB transmission in health facilities
    • Providing HIV testing to TB patients and supporting HIV treatment for people living with HIV and TB co-infection
    • Expanding TB preventative treatment for people living with HIV, whose weakened immune systems make them more vulnerable to becoming ill from TB
2019 World TB Day
World TB Day 2019

Global Epidemiology of Tuberculosis and Progress Towards Achieving Global Targets, 2017

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death by an infectious disease. In 2017, there were an estimated 10 million cases of TB globally, with an estimated 1.57 million deaths. These numbers demonstrate only modest progress in reducing TB, as measured by the number of cases of disease, death, and drug resistance. The ambitious targets for reducing TB burden by 2020 have been set in the Sustainable Development Goals and the End TB Strategy. Intensified efforts to improve TB case finding, treatment, and prevention are necessary to decrease the global burden of TB.

Learn More:

Tuberculosis – CDC in the News

Infectious Disease News: TB cases in US hit all-time low; declines insufficient to meet goals external icon– March 22, 2019
“These numbers demonstrate only modest progress in reducing TB, as measured by the number of cases of disease, death, and drug resistance. The rate of decline of these measures must improve in order to meet global TB 2020 targets.”
-Dr. Adam MacNeil, Global Tuberculosis, Prevention and Control Branch

CIDRAP News: TB in US at all-time low, but global decline smallexternal icon – March 21, 2019

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Page last reviewed: November 7, 2019
Content source: Global Health