Youth Violence Resources
- David-Ferdon, C., & Simon, T. R. (2014). Preventing youth violence: Opportunities for action. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/opportunities-for-action.html.
- Dahlberg, L. L., & Krug, E. G. (2002). Violence: A global public health problem. In E. G. Krug, L. L. Dahlberg, J. A. Mercy, A. B. Zwi, & R. Lozano (Eds.), World report on violence and health (pp. 1-56). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
- Mercy, J., Butchart, A., Farrington, D., & Cerdá, M. (2002). Youth violence. In E. G. Krug, L. L. Dahlberg, J. A. Mercy, A. B. Zwi, & R. Lozano (Eds.), World report on violence and health (pp. 25-56). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
- Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, et al. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance –United States, 2017. (2018). MMWR Morb Mortal Surveil Summ; 67 (SS-08): 1-479. Available from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf Cdc-pdfpdf icon[12.1 MB, 479 Pages, 508]
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs):
- Massetti GM, David-Ferdon C. Preventing violence among high-risk youth and communities with economic, policy, and structural strategies. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2016; 65(1):57-60.
- David-Ferdon C, Simon TR, Spivak H, Gorman-Smith D, Savannah SB, Listenbee RL, Iskander J. CDC Grand Rounds: Preventing Youth Violence. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2015; 64(07): 171-174.
- Egley A, Logan J, McDaniel D. Gang Homicides — Five U.S. Cities, 2003–2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report2012; 61(03): 46-51.
- McKenna M, Hawk E, Mullen J, Hertz M. Bullying among middle School and high school students – Massachusetts, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2011; 60(15): 465-471.
Risk and Protective Factors Articles:
- Mercy J, Butchart A, Farrington D, Cerdá M. Youth violence. In: Krug E, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, editors. World report on violence and healthpdf iconexternal icon. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization; 2002. p. 25-56.
- Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Youth violence: a report of the Surgeon General [online]; 2001. Available from: URL: www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/youthviolence/toc.htmlexternal icon.
- Lipsey MW, Derzon JH. Predictors of violent and serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: a synthesis of longitudinal research. In: Loeber R, Farrington DP, editors. Serious and violent juvenile offenders: risk factors and successful interventions. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; 1998. p. 86âˆ’105.
- Resnick MD, Ireland M, Borowsky I. Youth violence perpetration: what protects? What predicts? Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Adolescent Health 2004;35:424.e1âˆ’e10.
- Dubow, EF, Huesmann, LR, Boxer, P, Smith, C. Childhood and adolescent risk and protective factors for violence in adulthood. Journal of Criminal Justice 2016; 45, 26-31.
- Lösel, F, & Farrington, D P. Direct protective and buffering protective factors in the development of youth violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2012; 43(2), S8-S23.
- Preventing Youth Violence pdf icon[589 KB, 2 Pages, 508]
CDC’s fact sheet that includes definitions, consequences, and prevention strategies for preventing youth violence.
- A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth Violence and Associated Risk Behaviors pdf icon[4.09 MB, 64 Pages, 508]
This technical package is a collection of strategies that represent the best available evidence to help states and communities prevent or reduce youth violence. Also available in Spanish pdf icon[3.89 MB, 68 Pages, 508].
- Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences Among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools pdf icon[6.01 MB, 373 Pages, 508]
This compendium provides researchers and prevention specialists with a set of tools to assess violence-related beliefs, behaviors, and influences, as well as to evaluate programs to prevent youth violence.
CDC Data Sources:
- Indicators of School Crime and Safetyexternal icon
This annual report, published by the U.S. Department of Education and Department of Justice, provides the most recent data available on school crime and student safety. It covers topics such as victimization, teacher injury, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, and student use of drugs and alcohol.
- National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP)
NEISS-AIP provides nationally representative data about all types and causes of nonfatal injuries treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments.
- National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS)
NVDRS links information about the “who, when, where, and how” from data on violent deaths and provides insights about “why” they occurred. This information can be used by states and communities to make informed decisions about prevention programs and track progress over time.
- School-Associated Violent Deaths Study (SAVD)
SAVD monitors trends at the national level in school-associated violent deaths, common features of these events, and potential risk factors for perpetration and victimization.
- School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS)
SHPPS is a national survey conducted periodically to assess school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels.
- Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS)
WISQARS is an interactive database that provides national fatal and nonfatal injury, violent death, and cost of injury data.
- Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)
YRBSS monitors health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among 9th through 12th grade students in the United States.
Other Federal Data Sources:
- Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Department of Justiceexternal icon
The BJS provides data on crime, victims, criminals, courts, police, jails and prisons in the United States.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)external icon
The FBI collects data on crime in the United States. Each year, the FBI publishes a summary of crime in the United States, hate crime statistics, special studies, reports, and monographs.
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)external icon
The OJJDP’s Statistical Briefing Book provides data on juvenile offending, victimization of juveniles, and involvement of youth in the juvenile justice system.
- CDC’s National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs)
CDC’s YVPCs are academic-community collaborations that advance the science and practice of youth violence prevention.
- Best Practices for Implementation
This guidance is intended to help states and communities take action to select and implement the strategies presented in the technical packages for violence prevention.
- Striving To Reduce Youth Violence Everywhere (STRYVE)
STRYVE is CDC’s national initiative to prevent youth violence. STRYVE helps communities take a public health approach to preventing youth violence—stopping it before it even starts.
- Striving To Reduce Youth Violence Everywhere (STRYVE) Online
STRYVE is a national initiative led by CDC to prevent youth violence. STRYVE Online is a resource on CDC’s VetoViolence website that helps communities develop and implement comprehensive plans to prevent youth violence.
- Veto Violence
CDC’s online source of free violence prevention training, tools, and resources.
Other Federal Resources:
- CrimeSolutions.govexternal icon
The U.S. Department of Justice developed this resource to provide practitioners and policy makers with information about effective strategies in criminal justice, juvenile justice, and victim services.
- National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)external icon
This website offers information on criminal and juvenile justice, supported by the U.S. Department of Justice, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, and the Office for Victims of Crime Resource Center.
- National Gang Center (NGC)external icon
NGC disseminates information, knowledge, and practices that engage and empower communities with chronic and emerging gang problems to prevent gang violence, reduce gang involvement, and suppress gang-related crime.
- National Institute of Justiceexternal icon.
NIJ is the research, development and evaluation agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. NIJ provides information and tools to inform the decision-making of the criminal and juvenile justice communities to reduce crime and advance justice.
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)external icon
OJJDP provides national leadership, coordination, support, and resources to respond to juvenile delinquency and victimization.
- Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative (SS/HS)external icon
This initiative is a collaborative effort and comprehensive model to promote mental health among students and create safe and secure schools.
- Youth.govexternal icon
Youth.gov helps users create, maintain, and strengthen effective youth programs.
Additional Online Resources:
- Blueprints for Healthy Youth Developmentexternal icon
This is an online resource for communities to learn more about model or promising programs that reduce youth violence or key risk factors for violence and promote healthy youth behavior and relationships.
- Children’s Safety Networkexternal icon
This Network provides resources and technical assistance to maternal and child health agencies and organizations seeking to reduce unintentional injuries and violence toward children and adolescents.
- The Community Guide for Violence Preventionexternal icon
The Community Guide, developed by the Task Force for Community Preventive Services, includes recommendations for preventing youth violence based on systematic reviews of evidence-based strategies.
CDC’s web page that provides information about bullying.
- Bradshaw CP. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention. American Psychologist. 2015; 70(4): 322-32.
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2016. Available from http://sites.nationalacademies.org/DBASSE/BCYF/Science_on_Bullying/index.htmexternal icon.
- Bullying Surveillance Among Youths: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements, Version 1 pdf icon[8.64 MB, 116 Pages, 508]
The definitions and data elements publication was developed to address the lack of uniform definitions and to improve and standardize data collected on bullying.
- Preventing Bullying pdf icon[592 KB, 2 Pages, 508]
CDC’s fact sheet that includes definitions, consequences, and prevention strategies for preventing bullying.
- Measuring Bullying Victimization, Perpetration, and Bystander Experiences: A Compendium of Assessment Tools pdf icon[21.7 MB, 128 Pages, 508]
This compendium provides researchers, prevention specialists, and health educators with tools to measure a range of bullying experiences.
- Technology and Youth: Protecting Your Child from Electronic Aggression pdf icon[161 KB, 2 Pages, 508]
This tip sheet provides an overview of electronic aggression, any type of harassment or bullying that occurs through e-mail, a chat room, instant messaging, a website (including blogs), or text messaging. It provides parents and caregivers with strategies for protecting children from this type of violence.
- The Relationship Between Bullying and Suicide: What We Know and What it Means for Schools pdf icon[4.78 MB, 10 Pages, 508]
This document provides concrete, action-oriented information to help improve schools’ understanding of and ability to prevent and respond to the problem of bullying and suicide-related behavior.
- StopBullying.govexternal icon – English website
StopBullying.gov provides information from various government agencies on what bullying is, what cyberbullying is, who is at risk, and how you can prevent and respond to bullying.
- Espanol.StopBullying.govexternal icon – Spanish website
- StopBullying.gov’s Online Bullying Prevention Courseexternal icon
This training provides guidance on how to take a public health approach to bullying prevention through the use of long-term, community-wide prevention strategies.
Prevent Gang Membership
CDC’s web page that provides information about preventing gang membership.
- Simon T, Ritter N, Mahendra R, editors. Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013.
- Changing the Course: Preventing Gang Membership pdf icon[1.51 MB, 166 Pages, Print Only]external icon
- This book describes the principles and promising practices for preventing gang-joining that practitioners and policymakers can use to guide decisions and long-term planning for reducing gang activity.
- Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership pdf icon[57 KB, 1 Page, 508]
A flyer about the book to print and share.
- Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs pdf icon[725 KB, 24 Pages, Print Only]external icon
This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services.
- National Gang Center (NGC)external icon
NGC provides best‐practice information, resources, training, strategic tools, and expertise to assist those who are working to prevent youth from joining gangs, intervene with those who are gang‐involved, and suppress criminal and violent street gang activity.
- The National Gang Crime Research Center (NGCRC)external icon
NGCRC is a non-profit independent agency that conducts research on gangs and disseminates information through publications and reports, and provides training and consulting services.
- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)external icon
OJJDP collaborates with professionals from diverse disciplines to improve juvenile justice policies and practices.
CDC’s web page that provides information about School Violence.
- Kann, L., McManus, T., Harris, W. A., et al., Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2015. MMWR Surveill Summ2016; 65 (No.6)
- Hankin A, Hertz M, Simon T. Impacts of metal detector use in schools: insights from 15 years of research. Journal of School Health 2011;81 100-106.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The effectiveness of universal school-based programs for the prevention of violent and aggressive behavior: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. MMWR 2007;56(RR-7):1-12.
- Matjasko JL, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Massetti GM, Holland KM, Holt MK, Cruz JD. A systematic meta-review of evaluations of youth violence prevention programs: Common and divergent findings from 25 years of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Aggression and Violent Behavior 2012; 17 540-552.
- David-Ferdon C, Simon TR. Striving To Reduce Youth Violence Everywhere (STRYVE): The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s national initiative to prevent youth violence foundational resource. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2012.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School connectedness: strategies for increasing protective factors among youth. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services; 2009.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using environmental design to prevent school violence [cited 2014 Apr 10]. Available from URL: https://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/youthviolence/cpted.html
- Behaviors that Contribute to Violence on School Property pdf icon[92 KB, 1 Page, Print Only]
This fact sheet illustrates the trends in violence-related behaviors among youth as assessed by CDC’s Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS).
- Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) School Assessment (CSA) pdf icon[359 KB, 40 Pages, Print Only]external iconThe purpose of the CPTED CSA is to rate the physical parts of the school that may have an impact on youth fear and aggressive behavior. This rating scale is based on School CPTED Principles.
- Preventing Suicide: A Toolkit for High Schools pdf icon[3.78 KB 230 Pages Print Only]external iconThis toolkit assists high schools and school districts in designing and implementing strategies to prevent suicide and promote behavioral health.
- United States Secret Service College Campus Violenceexternal icon
This report provides an overview of targeted violence and the involved subjects, discusses initial observations regarding behaviors of the subjects, and offers considerations about the data that may have relevance to threat assessment.
- Department of Education National Center for Education Statisticsexternal icon
The primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the U.S. and other nations.
- Department of Education Post-secondary Education Violence Prevention Resourcesexternal icon
- Federal Bureau of Investigation School Violence Resourcesexternal icon
- Guide to Community Preventive Servicesexternal icon
This is a resource for systematic reviews and recommendations about what works to stop school and youth violence.
- Health Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT)
The HECAT contains guidance, appraisal tools, and resources to help schools conduct an analysis of health education curricula based on the National Health Education Standards and CDC’s Characteristics of an Effective Health Education Curriculum.
- School Connectedness: Strategies for Increasing Protective Factors among Youth
When students feel connected to school, they are less likely to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, including violence and gang involvement, and they have higher grades and test scores and better school attendance. This resource provides school administrators and teachers with strategies to enhance school connectedness among students.
- School Health Index
This assessment and planning tool can be used by schools to develop an action plan to improve health and safety. The tool covers five topics: unintentional injuries and violence prevention, physical education and activity, healthy eating, tobacco use prevention, and asthma.
School Associated Violent Deaths (SAVD)
CDC’s web page that provides information about the School Associated Violent Death Study.
- Anderson M, Kaufman J, Simon TR, Barrios L, Paulozzi L, Ryan G, et al. School-associated violent deaths in the United States, 1994–1999. JAMA 2001;286(21):2695–2702.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Temporal variations in school-associated student homicide and suicide events – United States, 1992–1999. MMWR 2001;50(31):657–660.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Source of firearms used by students in school-associated violent deaths – United States, 1992–1999. MMWR 2003;52(09):169–172.
- Musu-Gillette, L., Zhang, A., Wang, K., Zhang, J., Kemp, J., Diliberti, M., and Oudekerk, B.A. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2017 (NCES 2018-036/NCJ 251413). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.; 2018.
- School Associated Violent Death Study (SAVD)
This data system, developed in partnership with the Departments of Education and Justice, monitors at the national level school-associated violent deaths, common features of these events, and potential risk factor for perpetration and victimization.
National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs)
CDC’s web page that provides information about the National Centers for Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention.
- YVPC Overview pdf icon[218KB, 2Pages, 508]
This fact sheet provides an overview of the YVPCs program.
- YVPC Promo Video
- Youth Violence Program Evaluation Tools
The site complements and follows the CDC evaluation framework, presenting an engaging and interactive way for users to work through the evaluation planning process.
- YVPC Site-Specific Fact Sheets
This website contains the site-specific fact sheets for the current YVPCs.
Striving To Reduce Youth Violence Everywhere (STRYVE)
CDC’s web page that provides information about STRYVE.
- STRYVE Information pdf icon[602 KB, 2 Pages, 508]
- STRYVE Foundational Resource pdf icon[174 KB, 38 Pages, 508]
- Executive Summary to the STRYVE Foundational Resource pdf icon[115 KB, 2 Pages, 508]