Risk and Protective Factors for Perpetration
Risk factors are linked to a greater likelihood of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. They are contributing factors, but might not be direct causes. Not everyone who is identified as “at risk” becomes involved in violence.
A combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors contribute to the risk of becoming a perpetrator of IPV. Understanding these multilevel factors can help identify various opportunities for prevention.
Watch Moving Forward to learn more about how increasing what protects people from violence and reducing what puts people at risk for it benefits everyone.
Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration
- Low self-esteem
- Low income
- Low academic achievement/low verbal IQ
- Young age
- Aggressive or delinquent behavior as a youth
- Heavy alcohol and drug use
- Depression and suicide attempts
- Anger and hostility
- Lack of non-violent social problem-solving skills
- Antisocial personality traits and conduct problems
- Poor behavioral control/impulsiveness
- Borderline personality traits
- Prior history of being physically abusive
- Having few friends and being isolated from other people
- Emotional dependence and insecurity
- Belief in strict gender roles (e.g., male dominance and aggression in relationships)
- Desire for power and control in relationships
- Hostility towards women
- Attitudes accepting or justifying IPV
- Being a victim of physical or psychological abuse (consistently one of the strongest predictors of perpetration)
- Witnessing IPV between parents as a child
- History of experiencing poor parenting as a child
- History of experiencing physical discipline as a child
- Unplanned pregnancy
- Marital conflict-fights, tension, and other struggles
- Jealousy, possessiveness, and negative emotion within an intimate relationship
- Marital instability-divorces or separations
- Dominance and control of the relationship by one partner over the other
- Economic stress
- Unhealthy family relationships and interactions
- Association with antisocial and aggressive peers
- Parents with less than a high-school education
- Social isolation/lack of social support
- Poverty and associated factors (e.g., overcrowding, high unemployment rates)
- Low social capital-lack of institutions, relationships, and norms that shape a community’s social interactions
- Poor neighborhood support and cohesion
- Weak community sanctions against IPV (e.g., unwillingness of neighbors to intervene in situations where they witness violence)
- High alcohol outlet density
- Traditional gender norms and gender inequality (e.g., women should stay at home, not enter workforce, and be submissive; men support the family and make the decisions)
- Cultural norms that support aggression toward others
- Societal income inequality
- Weak health, educational, economic, and social policies/laws
Protective Factors for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration
- High friendship quality
- Social support (e.g. tangible help, support from neighbors)
- Neighborhood collective efficacy (i.e., community cohesiveness/support/connected-ness, mutual trust, and willingness to intervene for the common good)
- Coordination of resources and services among community agencies
See Intimate Partner Violence Resources for articles and publications about risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence perpetration.
- Yakubovich AR, Stӧckl H, Murray J, Melendez-Torres GJ, Steinert JI, Glavin CE, Humphreys DK. Risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence against women: systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective-longitudinal studies. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(7):e1-e11.
- Vagi KJ, Rothman EF, Laztman NE, Tharp AT, Hall DM, Breiding MJ. Beyond correlates: a review of risk and protective factors for adolescent dating violence perpetration. J Youth Adolesc. 2013;42:633–49.
- Capaldi DM, Knoble NB, Shortt JW, Kim HK. A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence. Partner Abuse 2012;3(2):231–80.