Fowler K, Dahlberg LL, Haileyesus T, Gutierrez C, Bacon S. Childhood firearm injuries in the United States. Pediatrics 2017; 140(1):e20163486. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3486. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28630118external icon
Goldstick JE, Carter PM, Walton MA, Dahlberg LL, Sumner SA, Zimmerman MA, Cunningham RM. Development of the SaFETy Score: a clinical screening tool for predicting future firearm violence risk. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2017; 166(10):707-714 (DOI: 10.7326/M16-1927).
Fowler K, Dahlberg LL, Haileyesus T, Annest JL, Bacon S. Firearm injuries in the United States. Preventive Medicine 2015; 79:5-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26116133external icon
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs):
Holland KM, Hall JE, Wang J, et. Al., Characteristics of school associated youth homicides—United States, 1994-2018. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2019; 68(3): 53-60.
Kegler SR, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas, United States, 2012-2013 and 2015-2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2018; 67(44):1233-1237. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6744a3.htm
Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System (BRFSS)
The BRFSS is the nation’s premier system of health-related telephone surveys that collect state data about U.S. residents regarding their health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services. An optional module on firearm safety practices was included on the survey in 2017 and 2021 and will also be available in 2022.
National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP)external icon
NEISS-AIP provides nationally representative data about all types and causes of nonfatal injuries treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments.
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)
NHAMCS gathers information on the utilization and provision of ambulatory care services from a nationally representative sample of visits to emergency departments of noninstitutional general and short-stay hospitals. The sample from years prior to 2018 also included outpatient departments and ambulatory surgery locations.
National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS)
NVDRS links information about the “who, when, where, and how” from data on violent deaths as well as unintentional firearm deaths and provides insights about “why” they occurred. This information can be used by states and communities to make informed decisions about prevention programs and track progress over time.
National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)
NVSS gathers information on births, deaths, and other vital events. The mortality data, including firearm-related deaths, are based on information from death certificates filed in state vital statistics offices and include causes of death reported by attending physicians, medical examiners, and coroners.
School Associated Violent Death Study (SAVD)
This data system, developed in partnership with the Departments of Education and Justice, monitors at the national level school-associated violent deaths, common features of these events, and potential risk factor for perpetration and victimization.
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)
YRBSS monitors health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among 9th through 12th grade students in the United States.
Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS)
WISQARS is an interactive, online database that provides fatal and nonfatal injury, violent death, and cost of injury data.
Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER)
CDC Wonder is an interactive, online platform that provides access to multiple health-related databases, including mortality data.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)external icon
AHRQ’s Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) includes nationwide databases that can be used to identify healthcare utilization, access, charges, quality, and outcomes. HCUP databases include a national inpatient hospital sample and a national emergency department sample, and state inpatient and emergency department databases.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)external icon
The BJS provides data on the characteristics of crime, victims, criminal offenders, and operations of the justice system at all levels of government, including information on courts, police, jails, and prisons in the United States.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Reportsexternal icon
Each year the FBI publishes a summary of Crime in the United States, Hate Crime Statistics, special studies, reports, and monographs.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)external icon
NIBRS captures details on each single crime incident—as well as on separate offenses within the same incident—including information on victims, known offenders, relationships between victims and offenders, arrestees, and property involved in the crimes.
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)external icon
NCVS is the primary source of information on criminal victimization in the U.S. NCVS collects information about nonfatal personal crimes and household property crimes both reported and not reported to police.
Gun Violence Archive (GVA)external icon
GVA is an online archive of gun violence incidents collected from law enforcement, media, government and commercial sources daily that provides near-real time data about the results of gun violence. GVA is an independent data collection and research group with no affiliation with any advocacy organization.