Risk and Protective Factors

Risk Factors

A combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors contribute to the risk of becoming a perpetrator of elder abuse. They are contributing factors and may or may not be direct causes. Understanding these factors can help identify various opportunities for prevention.

Watch Moving Forward to learn more about how increasing what protects people from violence and reducing what puts people at risk for it benefits everyone.

Risk Factors for Perpetration

Individual Level
  • Current diagnosis of mental illness
  • Current abuse of alcohol
  • High levels of hostility
  • Poor or inadequate preparation or training for care giving responsibilities
  • Assumption of caregiving responsibilities at an early age
  • Inadequate coping skills
  • Exposure to abuse as a child
Relationship Level
  • High financial and emotional dependence upon a vulnerable elder
  • Past experience of disruptive behavior
  • Lack of social support
  • Lack of formal support
Community Level
  • Formal services, such as respite care for those providing care to elders, are limited, inaccessible, or unavailable

Societal Level
A culture where:

  • There is high tolerance and acceptance of aggressive behavior
  • Health care personnel, guardians, and other agents are given greater freedom in routine care and decision making
  • Family members are expected to care for elders without seeking help from others
  • Persons are encouraged to endure suffering or remain silent regarding their pains
  • There are negative beliefs about aging and elders

In addition to the above factors, there are also specific characteristics of institutional settings that can increase the risk for perpetration of vulnerable elders, including:

  • Unsympathetic or negative attitudes toward residents
  • Chronic staffing problems
  • Lack of administrative oversight, staff burnout, and stressful working conditions

Protective Factors for Elder Abuse

Protective factors reduce risk for perpetrating abuse and neglect. Protective factors have not been studied as extensively or rigorously as risk factors. However, identifying and understanding protective factors are equally as important as researching risk factors. Research is needed to determine whether these factors do indeed buffer elders from abuse.

Protective Factors for Perpetration

Relationship Level
  • Having numerous, strong relationships with people of varying social status
Community Level
  • Coordination of resources and services among community agencies and organizations that serve the elderly population and their caregivers.
  • Higher levels of community cohesion and a strong sense of community or community identity
  • Higher levels of community functionality and greater collective efficacy

Protective factors within institutional settings can include the following:

  • Effective monitoring systems
  • Solid institutional policies and procedures regarding patient care
  • Regular training on elder abuse and neglect for employees
  • Education and clear guidance on durable power of attorney and how it is to be used
  • Regular visits by family members, volunteers, and social workers


See Elder Abuse Resources for articles and publications about elder abuse risk and protective factors.