Sexual Violence Resources


Consequences Articles:

  • Afifi TO, Henriksen CA, Asmundson GJ, Sareen J. Childhood maltreatment and substance use disorders among men and women in a nationally representative sample. Can J Psychiatry. 2012; 57(11): 677-686.
  • Maniglio R. The impact of child sexual abuse on health: A systematic review of reviews. Clin Psychol Rev.
  • Tomasula JL, Anderson LM, Littleton HL, Riley-Tillman TC. The association between sexual assault and suicidal activity in a national sample. Sch Psychol Q. 2012; 27(2): 109 –119.
  • Zinzow HM, Resnick HS, McCauley JL, Amstadter AB, Ruggiero KJ, Kilpatrick DJ.  Prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders as a function of variant rape histories:  results from a national survey of women.  Social Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(6):893-902.
  • Basile KC, Smith SG. Sexual violence victimization of women: Prevalence, characteristics, and the role of public health and prevention. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2011, 1559827611409512.
  • Chen LP, Murad  MH, Paras ML, Colbenson  KM, Sattler  AL, Goranson  EN, Zirakzadeh A. Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010; 85(7): 618-629. doi: 10.4065/mcp.2009.0583
  • Zinzow HM, Resnick HS, McCauley JL, Amstadter AB, Ruggiero KJ, Kilpatrick DG. The role of rape tactics in risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: results from a national sample of college women. Depress Anxiety. 2010;  27(8): 708-715
  • Campbell R, Dworkin E, Cabral G. An ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women’s mental health. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2009.
  • Coker AL, Hopenhayn C, DeSimone CP, Bush HM, Crofford L. Violence against women raises risk of cervical cancer.  J Womens Health; 2009: 18(8). doi: 10.1089=jwh.2008.1048
  • Littleton H, Grills-Taquechel A, Axsom D. Impaired and incapacitated rape victims: assault characteristics and post-assault experiences. Violence Vict. 2009; 24(4), 439-457.
  • Paras ML, Murad MH, Chen LP, Goranson EN, Sattler AL, Colbenson KM, Elamin MB, Seime RJ, Prokop LJ, Zirakzadeh A. Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Med Assoc; 2009:302(5), 550-561. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1091.
  • Weaver TL. Impact of rape on female sexuality: review of selected literature. Clin Obstet Gynecol.  2009; 52(4), 702-711.
  • Sommers MS. Defining patterns of genital injury from sexual assault: A review. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2007;8:270-280.
  • Basile KC, Black MC, Simon TR, Arias I, Brener ND, Saltzman LE. The association between self-reported lifetime history of forced sexual intercourse and recent health-risk behaviors: findings from the 2003 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. J Adolesc Health. 2006; 39: 752.e1–752.e7.
  • Yuan NP, Koss MP, Stone M. The psychological consequences of sexual trauma. National On-line Resource Center on Violence Against Women. 2006. Available from: icon
  • Dube SR, Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Maxia D, Giles HG. Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(5): 430-438.
  • McFarlane J, Malecha A, Watson K, et al. Intimate partner sexual assault against women: frequency, health consequences, and treatment outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105:99-108
  • Champion HL, Foley KL, DuRant RH, Hensberry R, Altman D, Wolfson M. Adolescent sexual victimization, use of alcohol and other substances, and other health risk behaviors. J Adolescent Health. 2004; 35(4):321–328.
  • Herrera VM, McCloskey LA. Sexual abuse, family violence, and female delinquency: findings from a longitudinal study. Violence Vict. 2003; 18(3): 319-334.
  • Lang AJ, Rodgers CS, Laffaye C, Satz LE, Dresselhaus TR, Stein MB. Sexual trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and health behavior. Behav Med. 2003;28(4):150–158
  • Campbell J, Jones AS, Dienemann J, Kub J, Schollenberger J, O’Campo P, Gielen AC, Wynne C. Intimate partner violence and physical health consequences. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162(10):1157-1163. Available from icon
  • Golding JM, Wilsnack SC, Cooper ML. Sexual assault history and social support: six general population studies. J Trauma Stress. 2002;15(3):187-97.
  • Jewkes R, Sen P, Garcia-Moreno C. Sexual violence. In: Krug E, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, et al., editors. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization. 2002; 213–239.
  • Silverman JG, Raj A, Mucci LA, Hathaway JE. Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, and suicidality. JAMA .2001; 286(5): 572-579.
  • Resnick HS, Holmes MM, Kilpatrick DG, Clum G, Acierno R, Best CL, Saunders BE. Predictors of post-rape medical care in a national sample of women. Am J Prev Med. 2000;19(4): 214-219.
  • Brener ND, McMahon PM, Warren CW, Douglas KA. Forced sexual intercourse and associated health-risk behaviors among female college students in the United States. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67:252–259.
  • Holmes MM, Resnick HS, Kilpatrick DG, Best CL. Rape-related pregnancy: estimates and descriptive characteristics from a national sample of women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 175:320–324.
  • Goodman, LA, Koss MP, Felipe Russo N. Violence against women: physical and mental health effects. Part I: Research findings. Appl Prev Psychol. 1993; 2(2):79-89.

Risk and Protective Factors Articles:

  • Kaczkowski W, Brennan CL, Swartout KM. In good company: Social network diversity may protect men against perpetrating sexual violence. Psychology of Violence. 2016.
  • Mazar LA, Kirkner, A. Fraternities and campus sexual violence: Risk, protection, and prevention. Violence and Gender. 2016; 3(3): 132-138.
  • East PL, Hokoda A. Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual and Dating Violence Victimization: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study of Latino and African American Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2015; 44(6):1288-1300.
  • Greathouse SM, Saunders J, Matthews M, Keller KM, Miller LL. A Review of the Literature on Sexual Assault Perpetrator Characteristics and Behaviors pdf icon[410 KB, 97 Pages, Print Only]external icon. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2015.
  • Basile KC, Hamburger ME, Swahn MH, Choi C,. Sexual violence perpetration by adolescents in dating versus same-sex peer relationships: Differences in associated risk and protective factors. West J Emerg Med. 2013; 14(4):329-340.
  • Tharp, A. T., DeGue, S., Valle, L. A., Brookmeyer, K. A., Massetti, G. M., & Matjasko, J. L. (2013). A systematic qualitative review of risk and protective factors for sexual violence perpetration. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse14(2), 133-167.

General Articles:

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs):



Fact Sheet:


CDC Data Sources:

Other Federal Data Sources:

Non-Federal Data Sources:

  • National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)external icon
    Add Health is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The cohort was most recently interviewed in 2008 when the sample was aged 24-32. Add Health re-interviewed cohort members in a Wave V follow-up from 2016-2018 to collect social, environmental, behavioral, and biological data with which to track the emergence of chronic disease as the cohort moves through their fourth decade of life.

CDC Resources:

  • Disaster Mental Health
    CDC’s Web page on disaster mental health includes information on coping with the stress that can result from experiencing a traumatic event.
  • Division of Adolescent and School Health
    CDC’s Division of Adolescent and School Health seeks to prevent the most serious health risk behaviors among children, adolescents, and young adults.
  • Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health
    This website provides information on the health concerns faced by America’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) population.
  • Office of Women’s Health (OWH)
    As the focus for women’s health issues at CDC, OWH provides a forum for collaboration and works within and outside the agency to raise awareness of women’s health and to promote activities that will improve the health and safety of women. OWH serves as an advocate for women’s health issues and stimulates research, disease prevention programs, and policy development.

Other Federal Resources:

  • Center for Substance Abuse Preventionexternal icon
    The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention offers free, Web-based courses. Courses identify problems and risk factors, screening and assessment tools, prevention and intervention strategies, tools for clients, and legal issues surrounding intimate partner violence.
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Victims of Crimeexternal icon
    OVC was established in 1984 to oversee diverse programs that help victims of crime. OVC provides funding to state victim assistance and compensation programs—the lifeline services that help victims to heal.
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Womenexternal icon
    The Office on Violence Against Women works with victim advocates and law enforcement to develop grant programs that support a wide range of services, including advocacy, emergency shelter, law enforcement protection, and legal aid for victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking. The Office leads efforts nationally and abroad to intervene in and prosecute crimes of trafficking in women and children and is addressing international domestic violence issues.

Other Online Resources:

  • 1in6external icon
    The mission of 1in6 is to help men who have had unwanted or abusive sexual experiences in childhood live healthier, happier lives. This organization also serves family members, friends, and partnersexternal icon and service providers by providing information and support resources on the web and in the community.
  • American Association of University Women (AAUW)external icon
    AAUW conducts groundbreaking research on issues related to gender equity in education and the workplace.
  • American College Health Association Sexual Violence Toolkit pdf icon[643 KB, 24 Pages, Print Only]external icon
    The American College Health Association developed this toolkit to provide facts, ideas, strategies, conversation starters, and resources to everyone on college campuses who cares about the prevention of sexual violence.
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologistsexternal icon
    This website provides professional publications about violence against women, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, adolescent dating violence, and patient education materials in both English and Spanish.
  • American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC)external icon
    This national nonprofit organization is focused on meeting the needs of professionals engaged in all aspects of services for children and families affected by child abuse and neglect.
  • Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA)external icon
    The Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers is an international, multidisciplinary organization dedicated to preventing sexual abuse.
  • Black Women’s Blueprint (BWB)external icon
    This organization works to place the particular struggles of Black women and girls squarely within the context of the larger racial justice concerns of Black communities.
  • Center for Sex Offender Managementexternal icon
    The goal of the Center for Sex Offender Management (CSOM) is to enhance public safety by preventing further victimization through improving the management of adult and juvenile sex offenders in the community.
  • Clery Center for Security on Campusexternal icon
    The goal of this organization is to work with college and university communities to create safer campuses, including providing Clery Act training seminars.  Under the Jeanne Clery Act of 1990, institutions must provide survivors of sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking with options such as changes to academic, transportation, or living or working situations, and assistance in notifying local law enforcement, if the student or employee chooses to do so.
  • Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Traffickingexternal icon
    The Coalition to Abolish Slavery & Trafficking (CAST), established in 1998, is a multi-ethnic human rights organization whose mission is to assist persons trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and slavery-like practices and to work toward ending all instances of such human rights violations.
  • End Rape on Campus (EROC)external icon
    EROC works to end campus sexual violence through direct support for survivors and their communities; prevention through education; and policy reform at the campus, local, state, and federal levels.
  • End Violence Against Women International (EVAWI)external icon
    EVAWI provides technical assistance on the law enforcement response to sexual assault and Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) forensic compliance.
  • Faith Trust Instituteexternal icon
    Formerly known as the Center for the Prevention of Domestic and Sexual Violence, FaithTrust Institute is an interreligious, educational resource that addresses sexual and domestic violence issues.
  • Futures Without Violenceexternal icon
    Striving to reach new audiences and transform social norms, the organization trains professionals such as doctors, nurses, athletic coaches, and judges on improving responses to violence and abuse.
  • Generation Fiveexternal icon
    Generation Five is a nonprofit organization that brings together diverse community leaders working to end child sexual abuse within five generations.
  • Getting attention for preventionexternal icon
    This brief, developed by the National Sexual Violence Resource Center and Berkeley Media Studies Group, provides guidance on how to frame sexual violence and construct messages about prevention.
  • Hollaback!external icon
    Hollaback! is a movement to end harassment powered by a network of local activists around the world. Members work together to better understand harassment ignite public conversations, and develop innovative strategies to ensure equal access to public spaces.
  • MaleSurvivorexternal icon
    MaleSurvivor creates resources and partnerships to provide life-changing support to adult male survivors of child sexual abuse and their loved ones.
  • Men Can Stop Rape (MCSR)external icon
    MCSR is a national nonprofit organization. MCSR’s mission is to mobilize men to use their strength for creating cultures free from violence, especially men’s violence against women.
  • National Alliance to End Sexual Violence (NAESV)external icon
    NAESV utilizes a comprehensive grassroots communication network to shape national policy related to sexual violence and victims’ needs. NAESV advocates on behalf of victims and survivors—, women, children, and men who have needlessly suffered the serious trauma of sexual violence —and envisions a world free from sexual violence.
  • National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC)external icon
    NCVC is a nonprofit organization that serves victims of all types of crime, including sexual violence. The Center provides public policy advocacy; training and technical assistance to victim service organizations, counselors, attorneys, criminal justice agencies, and allied professionals; a toll-free hotline for crime victims; and a virtual library containing publications, current statistics with references, a list of recommended readings, and bibliographies.
  • National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence (NCDSV)external icon
    NCDSV develops and provides innovative training and consultation, influences policy, and promotes collaboration and diversity in working to end domestic and sexual violence.
  • National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life (NCALL)external icon
    NCALL’s mission is to eliminate abuse in later life. Through advocacy and education, NCALL strives to challenge and change the beliefs, policies, practices, and systems that allow abuse to occur and continue.
  • National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP)external icon
    NCAVP is a coalition of programs that document and advocate for victims of anti-LGBT and anti-HIV/AIDS violence, harassment, domestic violence, sexual assault, police misconduct and other forms of victimization.
  • National Organization of Asians and Pacific Islanders Ending Sexual Violence (NAPIESV)external icon
    NAPIESV provides technical assistance and support to local and community-based programs and governmental organizations serving survivors of violence against women to develop or enhance their capacity to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services to Asian and Pacific Islander survivors of sexual violence.
  • National Organization of Sisters of Color Ending Sexual Assaultexternal icon
    This national organization supports women of color and organizations by and for communities of color, using a multi-strategy approach.
  • National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC)external icon
    NSVRC identifies and disseminates information, resources, and research on all aspects of sexual violence prevention and intervention.
  • NO MOREexternal icon
    NO MORE seeks to raise public awareness and engage bystanders around ending domestic violence and sexual assault.
  • Polaris Projectexternal icon
    To eradicate human trafficking across borders and strengthen services for victims, Polaris galvanizes regional collaboration among service providers, governments, and law enforcement entities to share data, strategies, and resources. Polaris has discovered the potential of a hotline to function as a coordination mechanism for the anti-trafficking movement.
  • PreventConnectexternal icon
    PreventConnect is a national project of the California Coalition Against Sexual Assaultexternal icon. The goal of PreventConnect is to advance the primary prevention of sexual assault and relationship violence by building a community of practice among people who are engaged in such efforts.
  • Prevention Instituteexternal icon
    Prevention Institute is a non-profit national center dedicated to improving community health and well-being by building momentum for effective primary prevention.
  • Ralianceexternal icon
    Raliance is a collaborative initiative dedicated to ending sexual violence in one generation and is a resource for policymakers, advocates, service providers, prevention practitioners, and the media. It is comprised of three national sexual violence prevention organizations: thee National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC), the California Coalition Against Sexual Assaults (CALCASA)-PreventConnect, and the National Alliance to End Sexual Violence (NAESV).
  • Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN)external icon
    Hotline: 800-656-HOPE
    RAINN is the nation’s largest anti-sexual assault organization. RAINN’s national hotline works as a call-routing system. When an individual calls RAINN, a computer reads the area code and first three digits of the phone number and routes the call to the nearest member rape crisis center.
  • Stop Educator Sexual Abuse, Misconduct, and Exploitation (S.E.S.A.M.E.)external icon
    S.E.S.A.M.E. works to prevent sexual exploitation, abuse, and harassment of students by teachers and other school staff.
  • STOP IT NOW!external icon
    STOP IT NOW! is a national, public health-based organization working to prevent and ultimately eradicate child sexual abuse.
  • Stop Street Harassmentexternal icon
    Stop Street Harassment (SSH) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to documenting and ending gender-based street harassment worldwide.
  • Students Active for Ending Rape (SAFER)external icon
    SAFER is a nonprofit organization that is devoted to empowering college students by providing them with the resources they need to build successful grassroots campaigns to combat sexual and interpersonal violence in campus communities.
  • Violence Against Women Electronic Network (VAWnet)external icon
    VAWnet provides a collection of full-text, searchable resources on domestic violence, sexual violence, and related issues as well as links to an “In the News” section, calendars listing trainings, conferences, grants, and access to the Domestic Violence Awareness Month and Sexual Assault Awareness Month subsites.
  • Workplaces Respond to Domestic and Sexual Violence: A National Resource Centerexternal icon
    The Center offers information on the Internet for the benefit of those interested in providing effective workplace responses to victims of domestic violence, sexual violence, dating violence and stalking.
  • Understanding Sex Trafficking
    CDC’s webpage that provides information about sex trafficking including definitions, risk and impact, and what states and communities need to know.

Federal Resources:

Additional Resources:

Victim and Survivor Services:

Page last reviewed: February 26, 2019