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Resources and Publications

The CDC Guide to Strategies to Support Breastfeeding Mothers and Babies
Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to Strategies to Support Breastfeeding Mothers and Babies is an update of the 2005 The CDC Guide to Breastfeeding Interventions. It provides state and local community members information to choose the breastfeeding intervention strategy that best meets their needs.

Breastfeeding and Breast Cancer Risk Reduction: Implications for Black Mothers.
This CDC-authored paper explores the potential protective effect of longer breastfeeding on breast cancer risk and highlights an important opportunity for cancer prevention among black mothers. Black women in the U.S. have lower rates of breastfeeding and nearly twice the rates of triple-negative breast cancer (an aggressive subtype) compared with white women. Addressing the barriers to initiating and continuing breastfeeding could improve breastfeeding rates and reduce racial disparities for some types of breast cancer.


Bibliography of published breastfeeding articles co-authored by CDC staff.

Recent MMWRs, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

For more see MMWR.

Racial and Geographic Differences in Breastfeeding — United States, 2011–2015
MMWR, July 14, 2017 / 66(27);723–727

Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding Among Adolescent Mothers Aged 12–19 Years — United States, 2009–2011
MMWR, January 22, 2016/65(2); 17-22

Vital Signs: Improvements in Maternity Care Policies and Practices That Support Breastfeeding — United States, 2007–2013
MMWR, October 9, 2015/64(39); 1112-7

Also available: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

Progress in Increasing Breastfeeding and Reducing Racial/Ethnic Differences — United States, 2000–2008 Births
MMWR, February 8, 2013/62(5); 77-80
Also available: Breastfeeding Progress MMWR Highlights

Vital Signs: Hospital Practices to Support Breastfeeding – United States, 2007 and 2009
MMWR, August 5, 2011/60(30); 1020-1025

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration, by State – National Immunization Survey, United States, 2004 – 2008
MMWR, March 26, 2010/59(11); 327-334

Breastfeeding-Related Maternity Practices at Hospitals and Birth Centers – United States, 2007
MMWR, June 13, 2008 / 57(23);621—625
Also available in print-friendly format [PDF-1.67MB]

Breastfeeding Trends and Updated National Health Objectives for Exclusive Breastfeeding—United States, Birth Years 2000–2004
MMWR, August 3, 2007 / 56(30);760-763
Although steady progress is being made toward achieving the Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) breastfeeding objectives for initiation and duration, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are far below desired levels.

Additional Resources

International Lactation Consultant Association
Certified Lactation Consultants have successfully passed the rigorous credentialing examination administered by the International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners (IBLCE). Find a Lactation Consultant for a national registry of consultants, ordered by state. Or contact a local affiliate of the International Lactation Consultant Association.

La Leche League International
Provides helpful information and mother-to-mother support through La Leche League’s network of lay leaders and professional experts. In addition to attending local meetings, any new mother may call a local leader for assistance, contact a national breastfeeding hotline, E-mail the national office for help, search LLLI’s database of research articles, visit the Ask the Experts columns, or join an on-line computer chat for answers to her breastfeeding questions.

HHS Office on Women’s Health (OWH)

United States Breastfeeding Committee (USBC)
The mission of the USBC is to improve the nation’s health by working collaboratively to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. Its vision is as follows:

In order to achieve optimal health, enhance child development, promote knowledgeable and effective parenting, support women in breastfeeding, and make optimal use of resources, we envision breastfeeding as the norm for infant and child feeding throughout the nation.

Visit USBC for issue papers and position statements.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

  • Breastfeeding Promotion Consortium (BPC)
    Cosponsored by the USDA/Food and Nutrition Service and the Department of Health and Human Services, the Breastfeeding Promotion Consortium includes more than 25 organizations representing health professional associations, breastfeeding advocacy groups and federal agencies. The Consortium meets twice a year to exchange ideas on how the federal government and private health interests can work together to promote breastfeeding throughout society.
  • Breastfeeding-related Programs and Services
    WIC serves low-income pregnant, postpartum and breastfeeding women, and infants and children up to age 5 who are at nutrition risk.
  • USDA Economic Research Service
    The Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding: A Review and Analysis reviews breastfeeding trends and previous studies that assessed the economic benefits of breastfeeding.

World Health Organization
Presents world-wide nutrition-related topics including:

Links to non-federal government organizations found on this resource page are provided solely as a service to the reader. These links do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the federal government, and none should be inferred. CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual organization sites listed on this website.

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