Prescription Medication Use
Although many medications do pass into breast milk, most have little or no effect on milk supply or on infant well-being. Few medications are contraindicated while breastfeeding.
Is it safe for mothers to use prescription medications while breastfeeding?
Usually. A 2013 clinical report by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), “The Transfer of Drugs and Therapeutics into Human Breast Milk: An Update on Selected Topics,External” indicates that most medications and immunizations are safe to use during lactation.
According to the AAP, health care providers should weigh the risks and benefits when prescribing medications to breastfeeding mothers by considering the following:
- Need for the drug by the mother.
- Potential effects of the drug on milk production.
- Amount of the drug excreted into human milk.
- Extent of oral absorption by the breastfeeding infant.
- Potential adverse effects on the breastfeeding infant.
- Age of the infant.
- Proportion of feedings that are breast milk.
Review LactMed®External for the most up-to-date information available on medications and lactation when advising breastfeeding mothers on medication safety.
Note to Breastfeeding Mothers
Tell your health care provider and your baby’s provider about any medications or supplements you are taking, including vitamins, herbs, and over-the-counter products.
Where can I search for specific medications and their safety in mothers while breastfeeding?
The US National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) maintains LactMed®External, a database containing information on drugs and other chemicals to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed.
LactMed®External includes information on the levels of such substances in breast milk and infant blood, and the possible adverse effects in the nursing infant. Suggested therapeutic alternatives to those drugs are provided, where appropriate. All data come from scientific literature and are fully referenced. A peer review panel reviews the data for scientific validity and currency.
The Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) provides information, in English and Spanish, for women and health care providers on the risks and safety of taking medication during pregnancy and breastfeeding. This group maintains a website called Mother to BabyExternal.
The InfantRisk CenterExternal provides up-to-date evidence-based information on the use of medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The InfantRisk Center also provides resources such as a hotline, MommyMeds mobile app for consumers, InfantRisk Center mobile app for health care professionals and MommyMeds.com to make accessing safety information simple.
- Breastfeeding and MedicationExternal — American Academy of Pediatrics
- Clinical Protocol #9: Use of Galactogogues in Initiating or Augmenting the Rate of Maternal Milk SecretionExternal — Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
- Clinical Protocol #13: Contraception During BreastfeedingExternal — Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
- Clinical Protocol #15: Analgesia and Anesthesia for the Breastfeeding MotherExternal — Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
- Clinical Protocol #18: Use of Antidepressants in Breastfeeding MothersExternal — Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine