HIV self-testing allows people to take an HIV test and find out their result in their own home or other private location. The availability of HIV self-tests in the US may help increase awareness of HIV infection for people who wouldn’t otherwise get an HIV test. While HIV self-tests are available for retail purchase by consumers, CDC encourages health departments to consider HIV self-testing as an additional testing strategy to reach persons most affected by the HIV. Findings from self-testing research and additional resources provided below may be helpful if you are considering offering HIV self-testing in your program.
Evaluation of HIV Self-Testing Among Men who have Sex with Men Project (eSTAMP) (2019)
eSTAMP was a national randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the public health benefits of mailing HIV self-tests to Internet-recruited gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in the US during 2015-2016 (1). Compared to men in the control arm, men who were mailed HIV self-tests:
- tested themselves more frequently
- identified significantly more prevalent HIV infections
- did not increase sexual risk behaviors
- shared the study HIV self-test with members of their social network, resulting in many more persons becoming aware of their HIV infection.
Mail distribution of HIV self-tests effectively increased diagnosis of HIV infection among gay and bisexual men and identified infections among their social network members. Reaching gay and bisexual men via the Internet for HIV test kit distribution could provide an efficient mechanism for implementing HIV self-testing programs. HIV program planners should consider mailing out HIV self-tests to Internet-recruited gay and bisexual men as an additional component of their HIV prevention portfolio. A smaller trial conducted by Katz et al (2) among gay and bisexual men living in Seattle also found those receiving self-tests tested more frequently but that self-testing did not increase either the report of behaviors that increase risk of HIV infection or the diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections.
Consumer update: First Rapid Home-Use HIV Kit Approved for Self-Testing
FDA describesexternal icon the potential impact of this test and the messages that FDA wants to send consumers.
OraQuick in-Home HIV Test
OraSure Technologies provides detailed information of their HIV self-test product, OraQuick In-Home HIV Testexternal icon. In this page consumers can find information about the product, written and video instructions of how to use the test, help on how to interpret a result, and the 24/7 customer support phone number.
How to Start an HIV Self-Testing Program
As part of CDC’s HIV Capacity Building Assistance for Health Departments, the New York City Department of Health provided a description of their self-testing programs and considerations for other health departments that want to set up similar programs in May 2019. Viewexternal icon a recording of this presentation.
HIV Self-Testing in the World
In 2016, WHO published the first global guidelines on HIV self-testingexternal icon, in which HIV self-testing was recommended to be offered as an additional approach to HIV testing services. WHO also coordinates a websiteexternal icon monitoring the use of HIV self-tests around the world.
- MacGowan RJ, Chavez PC, Borkowf CB, Owen SM, Purcell DW, Mermin JH, Sullivan PS, for the eSTAMP Study Group. Effect of internet-distributed HIV self-tests on HIV diagnosis and behavioral outcomes in men who have sex with men: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. Published online November 18, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.5222external icon
- Katz DA, Golden MR, Hughes JP, Farquhar C, Stekler JD. HIV Self-Testing Increases HIV Testing Frequency in High-Risk Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Aug 15;78(5):505-512. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29697595external icon