# Appendix. Number of reported acute viral hepatitis infection cases and estimated infections with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals — United States, 2012–2019

Source: CDC, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

* To account for underestimation, a probabilistic model to estimate the true incidence (symptomatic and asymptomatic cases) of acute hepatitis A, B, and C virus infections from reported (symptomatic) cases has been published previously- The model includes the probabilities of symptoms, referral to care and treatment, and rates of reporting to local and state health departments. The published multipliers have since been corrected by CDC to indicate that each reported case of hepatitis A represents 2.0 estimated infections (95% bootstrap confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–2.2); each reported case of acute hepatitis B represents 6.5 estimated infections (95% CI: 3.7–15.9); and each reported case of hepatitis C represents 13.9 estimated infections (95% CI: 11.0–47.4).

Klevens RM, Liu, S, Roberts H, et al. Estimating acute viral hepatitis infections from nationally reported cases. Am J Public Health 2014;104:482. PMC3953761. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3953761/pdf/AJPH.2013.301601.pdf [PDF – 6 pages]

* To account for underestimation, a probabilistic model to estimate the true incidence (symptomatic and asymptomatic cases) of acute hepatitis A, B, and C virus infections from reported (symptomatic) cases has been published previously- The model includes the probabilities of symptoms, referral to care and treatment, and rates of reporting to local and state health departments. The published multipliers have since been corrected by CDC to indicate that each reported case of hepatitis A represents 2.0 estimated infections (95% bootstrap confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–2.2); each reported case of acute hepatitis B represents 6.5 estimated infections (95% CI: 3.7–15.9); and each reported case of hepatitis C represents 13.9 estimated infections (95% CI: 11.0–47.4).

Klevens RM, Liu, S, Roberts H, et al. Estimating acute viral hepatitis infections from nationally reported cases. Am J Public Health 2014;104:482. PMC3953761. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3953761/pdf/AJPH.2013.301601.pdf [PDF – 6 pages]