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1 Holtgrave DR. Written Testimony on HIV/AIDS Incidence and Prevention For Hearing to be held September 16, 2008. Accessed March 13, 2015.

2 The White House Office of National AIDS Policy. National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States. July 2010. . Accessed March 9, 2017

3 Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Preexposure Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Who Have Sex with Men. iPrEx Study Group. N Engl J Med 2010;363(27):2587-99.

4 Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy. The HPTN 052 Study Team. N Engl J Med 2011. doi:10.1056/nejmoa1105243

5 Thigpen MC, Kebaabetswe PM, Smith DK, et al. Daily oral antiretroviral use for the prevention of HIV infection in heterosexually active young adults in Botswana: results from the TDF2 study. HIV-1-infected adults. 6th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. July 17-20, 2011. Rome. Abstract WELBC01.

6 Baeten J. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among heterosexual African men and women: the Partners PrEP study. HIV-1-infected adults. 6th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. July 17-20, 2011. Rome. Abstract MOAX0106.

7 Prejean J, Song R, Hernandez A, et al. Estimated HIV Incidence in the United States, 2006-2009. PLoS ONE 2011;6(8):e17502.

8 CDC. HIV Surveillance Report, 2009; vol. 21. Accessed August 2, 2011.

9 CDC. HIV Surveillance – United States, 1981-2008. MMWR 2011;60(21);689-693.

10 Hall HI, Green TA, Wolitski RJ, et al. Estimated future HIV prevalence, incidence, and potential infections averted in the United States: a multiple scenario analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010;55(2):271-6.

11 Mermin J. The Science and Practice of HIV Prevention in the United States. 18th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Boston, February 27-March 2, 2011. Paper #19.

12 Purcell DW, Johnson C, Lansky A, et al. Estimate of number of MSM in the United States and MSM's rates of HIV and syphilis. National STD Prevention Conference 2010. Atlanta, March 8-11, 2010. Abstract 22896.

13 Herbst JH, Jacobs ED, Finlayson TJ, et al. Estimating HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of transgender persons in the United States: a systematic review. AIDS Behav 2008; 12(1):1-17.

14 Hall HI, Song R, Rhodes P, et al. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA 2008;300(5):520-529.

15 Farnham PG, Holtgrave DR, Sansom SL, et. al. Medical Costs Averted by HIV Prevention Efforts in the United States, 1991–2006. JAIDS 2010;54:565-67.

16 Weinhardt LS, Carey MP, Johnson BT, et al. Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk: meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997. Am J Public Health 1999;89(9):1397-1405.

17 Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1173-80.

18 Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. May 24, 2010; pp 1-117. Accessed August 2, 2011.

19 Cohen DA , Farley TA, Bedimo-Etame JR, et al. Implementation of condom social marketing in Louisiana,1993 to 1996. Am J Public Health 1999;89:204-8.

20 Fuller CM, Ford C, Rudolph A. Injection drug use and HIV: past and future considerations for HIV prevention and interventions. In: Mayer KH, Pizer HF, editors. HIV prevention: a comprehensive approach. London: Academic Press/Elsevier; 2009:305-339.

21 CDC. Evolution of HIV/AIDS prevention programs – United States, 1981-2006. MMWR 2006; 55:597-603.

22 Hogben M, McNally T, McPheeters M, et al. The effectiveness of HIV partner counseling and referral services in increasing identification of HIV-positive individuals: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2007; 33(2 Suppl):S89-100.

23 CDC. Recommendations for partner services programs for HIV infections, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection. MMWR 2008;57(No. RR9):1-83.

24 Drumright LN, Colfax GN. HIV risk and prevention for non-injection substance users. In: Mayer KH, Pizer HF, editors. HIV prevention: a comprehensive approach. London: Academic Press/Elsevier; 2009:340-375.

25 Fleming DT, Wasserheit JN. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: thecontribution of other sexually transmitted disease to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sex Transm Infect 1999;75(1):3-17.

26 Baeten JM, Strick LB, Lucchetti A, et al. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-suppressive therapy decreases plasma and genital HIV-1 levels in HSV-2/HIV-1 coinfected women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. J Infect Dis 2008;198(12):1804-8.

27 Zuckerman RA, Lucchetti A, Whittington WL, et al. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppression with valacyclovir reduces rectal and blood plasma HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2-seropositive men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Infect Dis 2007;196(10):1500-8.

28 Dunne EF, Whitehead S, Sternberg M, et al. Suppressive acyclovir therapy reduces HIV cervicovaginal shedding in HIV- and HSV-2-infected women, Chiang Rai, Thailand. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008;49(1):77-83.

29 CDC. Interim Guidance: Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men. MMWR 2011;60(03);65-68.