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Transportation and Health Resources

This website is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or updated.

The Healthy Community Design Initiative, also known as the Built Environment and Health Initiative, is no longer a funded program and the information on this website is not being reviewed and updated on a regular basis.

Selected Peer-Reviewed Articles

Balaban V, Sleet DA. Childhood injuries and travel environments: Implications for Prevention. In Friis, R (Ed). Praeger Handbook of Environmental Health (Vol 4:263-286). Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2012.

Beck LF, Dellinger AM, O’Neil ME. Motor vehicle crash injury rates by mode of travel, United States: using exposure-based methods to quantify differences. Am J Epi 2007;166:212-8. 3.

Frank L. Obesity Relationships with Community Design, Physical Activity and Time Spent in Cars. Am J Prev Med. 2004; 27(2): 87–97.

Fraser SD, Lock K. Cycling for transport and public health: a systematic review of the effect of the environment on cycling. Eur J Public Health. 2011 Dec;21(6):738–743.

Freeland AL, Banerjee SN, Dannenberg AL, Wendel AM. Walking associated with public transit: moving toward increased physical activity in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2013 Mar;103(3):536–542.

Gotschi T. Costs and benefits of bicycling investments in Portland, Oregon. J Phys Act Health. 2011 Jan;8 Suppl 1:S49–S58.

Heath GW, Brownson RC, Kruger J, Miles R, Powell KE, Ramsey LT, and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. The effectiveness of urban design and land use and transport policies and practices to increase physical activity: A systematic review. J Phys Act Health. 2006, 3, Suppl 1,S55–S76.

Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy. NYC, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Society of Public Health Education. Active Design Supplement: Promoting Safety. New York (NY): 2012. Available at URL

Kegler S, Beck LF, Sauber-Schatz EK. Motor vehicle crash deaths in metropolitan areas, US, 2009. MMWR 2012;61(28):523-8. 5.

Litman T. “If Health Matters: Integrating Public Health Objectives into Transportation Decision-Making,” Victoria (CN): Transport Policy Institute; 2013. Available at URL: . Previously published as, “Integrating public health objectives in transportation decision-making.” Am J Health Promot. 2003 Sep/Oct; 18(1):103-108. Available at URL: [PDF – 165 KB].

MacDonald JM, Stokes RJ, Cohen DA, Kofner A, Ridgeway GK. The effect of light rail transit on body mass index and physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 2010 Aug;39(2):105–12.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Countermeasures that work: A highway safety countermeasures guide for State Highway Safety Offices. 7th edition. (Report No. DOT HS 811 727). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; 2013.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. National pedestrian crash report. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; 2008. Available at

Naumann RB, Dellinger AM, Zaloshnja E, Lawrence BA, Miller TR. Incidence and total lifetime costs of motor vehicle-related fatal and nonfatal injury by road user type, United States, 2005. Traffic Inj Prev 2010;11:353-60.

Naumann RB, Beck LF. Motor vehicle traffic-related pedestrian deaths, United States, 2001-2010. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2013;62:277-282. Available at URL

Pucher J, Buehler R, Bassett DR, Dannenberg AL. Walking and cycling to health: a comparative analysis of city, state, and international data. Am J Public Health. 2010 Oct;100(10):1986–1992.

Rissel C, Curac N, Greenaway M, Bauman A. Physical activity associated with public transport use—a review and modelling of potential benefits. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Jul;9(7):2454–2478.

Ross CL, Leone de Nie K, Dannenberg AL, Beck LF, Marcus MJ, Barringer J. Health impact assessment of the Atlanta BeltLine. Am J Prev Med 2012;42:203-13.

Saelens BE, Handy SL. Built environment correlates of walking: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Jul;40 (7 Suppl):S550–S566.

Sleet DA., Naumann, R, Baldwin, G, Dinh-Zarr, TB, Ewing, R. Eco-friendly transportation and the built environment. In: Friis, R, editor. Praeger handbook of environmental health. Santa Barbara: Praeger; 2012. p. 427-40.

Sleet, DA, Naumann, R, Rudd, R. Injuries and the built environment. In: Dannenberg, AL, Frumkin, H, Jackson, R, editors. Making healthy places: designing and building for health, well-being, and sustainability. Washington (DC): Island Press; 2011. p. 77-90.

Sleet DA, Dellinger, A. Traffic Injury Prevention and Environmental Public Health: Strategies that Work. In Friis, R (Ed). Praeger Handbook of Environmental Health (Vol 4: Chapter 5:91-112). Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2012.

Stokes RJ, MacDonald J, Ridgeway G. Estimating the effects of light rail transit on health care costs. Health Place. 2008 Mar;14(1):45–58.

Vargo J; Gerhardstein BG, Whitfield GP; Wendel AM. Bicyclist Deaths Associated with Motor Vehicle Traffic — United States, 1975–2012. MMWR 2015; 64(31);837-841.

Whitfield GP, Paul P, Wendel AM. Active Transportation Surveillance—United States, 1999–2012. American Journal of Public Health: March 2016, Vol. 106, No. 3, pp. e1-e4.

World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety 2013: supporting a decade of action. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2013. Available at URL violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2013/en/index.html .

World Health Organization. Pedestrian safety: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2013. Available at URL am/10665/79753/1/9789241505352_eng.pdf.

World Health Organization. Speed management: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008. Available at URL

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  • Page last reviewed: January 2, 2014 (archived document)
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