PCD logo

Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014–2015


Figure. Nonsmokers’ indoor and outdoor exposure to secondhand smoke. Indoor secondhand smoke exposure comparison is between all nonsmokers (N = 145), at Time 1 and Time 2, Minnesota, 2014–2015. Outdoor secondhand smoke exposure comparison is between nonsmokers from sites that did not prohibit smoking on all grounds (N = 119), at Time 1 and Time 2. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Abbreviation: SHS, secondhand smoke.

Type of Exposure Nonsmokers Who Reported Secondhand Smoke Exposure More Than a Few Times Per Month, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Before Policy After Policy
Indoor 44.0 (35.8–52.2) 23.6 (16.5–30.7)
Outdoor 30.0 (21.8–38.2) 38.7 (30.5–47.5)

Return to Article


The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors’ affiliated institutions.

Page last reviewed: August 18, 2016