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Original Research Checklist



checkboxThe title accurately reflects the content of the manuscript.

checkboxThe structured abstract (using the headings Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusion) accurately reflects the content of the manuscript.

checkboxThe manuscript adds substantially to what is already known about the topic.

checkboxThe article is of interest to PCD readers.

checkboxThe article fits the mission of the journal to address the interface between applied prevention research and public health practice in chronic disease prevention.

checkboxThe manuscript is clearly and concisely written and is free of jargon.

checkboxEach section of the manuscript — Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion — includes the appropriate elements. The sections are clearly delineated.

checkboxThe citations are up to date and relevant.

checkboxAll statements requiring citations have citations.

checkboxThe Acknowledgments identify funding for the study.

checkboxThe article has no more than 3,500 words and 35 references.


checkboxThe abstract accurately reflects the content of the manuscript.

checkboxThe abstract has the following subheadings: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.

checkboxThe text has no more than 250 words.


checkboxThe context of the study is explained.

checkboxThe importance of the study question is explained.

checkboxThe precise objective of the study is stated.

checkboxIf more than 1 objective is addressed, the main objective is identified and only the key secondary objectives are noted.

checkboxA hypothesis is stated.

checkboxA brief literature review is provided to identify gaps in knowledge on the study topic and show how the study will add substantially to what is already known.

checkboxThe authors appear to know their subject.

checkboxA general reader would be able to understand the study question and its importance.

checkboxDefinitions of terms specific to the context of the manuscript are provided.

checkboxThe Introduction has no more than 300 words.


checkboxThe type of study design used is stated and described.

checkboxAn appropriate study design was used to achieve the study objectives.

checkboxThe dates of the study are provided.

checkboxFor a study that describes an intervention, the essential features of the intervention are described.

checkboxFor a study that includes a survey, the survey questions are provided.

checkboxThe setting from which the participants are drawn (eg, general community, school, hospital, worksite) is described, including key sociodemographic features.

checkboxFor study participants, detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria are provided.

checkboxParticipants are appropriate to the research question.

checkboxRecruitment of study participants and sampling procedures are described.

checkboxIf the manuscript describes research involving human subjects, it includes a statement that the research was approved by an appropriate institutional review board.

checkboxThe participation rate is provided and defined in terms of a numerator and denominator.

checkboxThe participation rate is satisfactory.

checkboxIf controls are used, they are adequately described.

checkboxThe pre-study calculation of required sample size is reported.

checkboxThe sample size is large enough to produce meaningful results.

checkboxA consistent cohort of study participants, for whom all data items are available, is used.

checkboxThe primary study outcome measures are described as planned before the data collection began.

checkboxFor survey studies, the authors indicate whether the survey instrument has been shown to have validity.

checkboxA section on statistical methods is provided.

checkboxThe statistical methods are appropriately selected.

checkboxThe statistical methods are explained in plain English.

checkboxThe statistical software is identified.

checkboxEnough information is provided to enable an informed reader to replicate the study.

checkboxThe Methods section includes only a description of the methods; it does not include results.

checkboxArticles reporting results of randomized controlled trials conform to the standards of the CONSORT statement.


checkboxThe results are specific and relevant to the research hypothesis.

checkboxAll results reported have a corresponding section in the Methods section. (In other words, for each result reported, a reader would be able to ascertain how the result was obtained by referring to the Methods section.)

checkboxCharacteristics of the study participants are presented (eg, number, age distribution, sex, racial and ethnic characteristics).

checkboxThe main outcomes of the study are provided.

checkboxFor surveys, the response rate is provided.

checkboxMeasures of data distribution or precision (eg, SD, 95% CI, SE) are given.

checkboxInformation on how study participants may compare to people not included in the study is provided.

checkboxOutcomes or measurements unfamiliar to a general public health readership are explained.

checkboxIf validation measures are conducted as part of the study, they are described.

checkboxThe conclusions drawn from the statistical analysis are justified.

checkboxImplications or weaknesses of the study and the rationale for the statistical procedures used are not discussed in this section.


checkboxThe research question or hypothesis is addressed.

checkboxStrengths and weaknesses of the study are objectively evaluated.

checkboxPositive and negative findings of equal scientific merit are emphasized equally.

checkboxA lengthy reiteration of the Results section is avoided.

checkboxStudy findings are compared and contrasted with findings of similar studies.

checkboxUnexpected findings are mentioned, with suggested explanations.

checkboxLimitations of the study are discussed.

checkboxThe generalizability of the results is discussed.

checkboxImplications for public health are discussed.

checkboxSpeculation and overgeneralization are avoided.

checkboxIf appropriate, future potential studies are suggested.

checkboxThe section ends with a clear, concise conclusion that is directly supported by the study findings.

Tables and Figures

checkboxThe tables and figures are well constructed, easy to comprehend, and visually appealing.

checkboxInformation in the tables or figures is not duplicated in the text or in other tables or figures.

checkboxInformation in the tables or figures is consistent with information in the text.

checkboxNumbers add up correctly.

checkboxThe tables and figures are able to stand independently; they do not require explanation from the text.

The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors’ affiliated institutions.

Page last reviewed: May 2, 2022