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Comprehensive tax stamping policies could enhance U.S. efforts to reduce illicit tobacco trade.

Comprehensive tax stamping policies could enhance U.S. efforts to reduce illicit tobacco trade.

 


May 29, 2015 / Vol. 64 / No. 20
CE Available

Use of Tobacco Tax Stamps to Prevent and Reduce Illicit Tobacco Trade — United States, 2014

Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco, and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States.



MMWR Recommendations and Reports

February 20, 2015 / Vol. 64 / No. RR–2
CE Available
Clinical Guidance for Smallpox Vaccine Use in a Postevent Vaccination Program

This report outlines recommendations for the clinical use of the three smallpox vaccines stored in the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile for persons who are exposed to smallpox virus or at high risk for smallpox infection during a postevent vaccination program following an intentional or accidental release of the virus. These recommendations will be updated as new data on smallpox vaccines become available and as further clinical guidance for other medical countermeasures including antivirals is developed.

MMWR Surveillance Summaries

May 1, 2015 / Vol. 64 / No. SS–3
Cryptosporidiosis Surveillance — United States, 2011–2012

Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by the extremely chlorine-tolerant protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium. Fifty state and two metropolitan public health agencies voluntarily report cases of cryptosporidiosis through CDC’s National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. For 2011, a total of 9,313 cryptosporidiosis cases (confirmed and nonconfirmed) were reported; for 2012, a total of 8,008 cases were reported; 5.8% and 5.3%, respectively, were associated with a detected outbreak. Cryptosporidiosis incidence rates remain elevated nationally, and rates of nonconfirmed cases have increased. Rates remain highest in young children, although rates among elderly adults are increasing. Future research is needed to address shifting trends in cryptosporidiosis cases, with a specific focus on the increase in nonconfirmed cases and increasing incidence rates among elderly adults.



Giardiasis Surveillance — United States, 2011–2012

Giardiasis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Forty-four states, the District of Columbia, New York City, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and Guam voluntarily reported cases of giardiasis to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). For 2011, a total of 16,868 giardiasis cases (98.8% confirmed and 1.2% nonconfirmed) were reported; for 2012, a total of 15,223 cases (98.8% confirmed and 1.3% nonconfirmed) were reported. In 2011 and 2012, 1.5% and 1.3% of cases, respectively, were associated with a detected outbreak. For the first time in 10 years, giardiasis rates appear to be decreasing. Educational efforts to decrease exposure to unsafe drinking and recreational water and prevent person-to-person transmission have the potential to reduce giardiasis transmission.

MMWR Summary of Notifiable Diseases

September 19, 2014 / Vol. 61 / No. 53
Summary of Notifiable Diseases — United States, 2012

Health-care providers in the United States are required to report certain infectious diseases to a specified state or local authority. A disease is designated as notifiable if timely information about individual cases is considered necessary for prevention and control of the disease. Each year, CDC publishes a summary of the cases of notifiable disease reported for the most recent year for which data is available. This report presents a summary of notifiable diseases for 2012.

MMWR Supplements

May 15, 2014 / Vol. 64 / Supplement / No. 1
Competency Guidelines for Public Health Laboratory Professionals: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories

These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies.


 


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