Articles and Key Findings on Zika and Pregnancy

Key Findings

Birth defects potentially related to Zika increased in U.S. territories after widespread local transmission
Scientists found a four-fold increase in the birth defects most strongly linked to Zika during pregnancy in areas with widespread local transmission.
(Published January 23, 2020)

Zika in babies in US territories: Monitoring early health and development
Researchers found that babies exposed to Zika before birth might have long-term health problems that  are not apparent at birth. Identifying health problems early can help babies and children get the care they need.
(Published: August 10, 2018)

CDC reports increase in birth defects potentially related to Zika in US areas with local transmission
Researchers found an increase in the birth defects most strongly linked to Zika in areas with local Zika transmission.
(Published: January 25, 2018)

Articles of Interest

Articles are listed in descending order of date published.

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5 Hidden Dangers in International Travel
Medscape (2019 August 26)
Jeffrey B. Nemhauser, MD; Sue K. Partridge, MPH; Amanda A. Akosa, MPH
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Depressive Symptoms and Care Demands Among Primary Caregivers of Young Children with Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection in Brazil
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2019 Jun;40(5):344-353.
Kotzky, K., Allen, J. E., Robinson, L. R., Satterfield-Nash, A., Bertolli, J., Smith, C., … & Peacock, G.
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Readiness for an Increase in Congenital Zika Virus Infections in the United States: Geographic Distance to Pediatric Subspecialist Care
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness (2018 August 24); 10.1017/dmp.2018.77
Bertolli J, Holbrook J, Dutton ND, Jones B, Dowling NF, Peacock G.
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Vital Signs: Zika-Associated Birth Defects and Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities Possibly Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection – U.S. Territories and Freely Associated States, 2018.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 August 10;67(31):858-867. doi:
Rice ME, Galang RR, Roth NM, et al.
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Breast milk transmission of flaviviruses in the context of Zika virus: A systematic review
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Mann, T.Z., Haddad, L.B., Williams, T.R., Hills, S.L., Read, J.S., Dee, D.L., Dsiuban, E.J., Perez_Padilla, J., Jamieson, D.J, Honein, M.A., Shapiro-Mendoza, C.K.
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Population-Based Surveillance of Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection — 15 States and U.S. Territories, 2016
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(3), 91.
Delaney, A., Mai, C., Smoots, A., Cragan, J., Ellington, S., Langlois, P., … & Scotto-Rosato, N.
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Health and Development at Age 19–24 Months of 19 Children Who Were Born with Microcephaly and Laboratory Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection During the 2015 Zika Virus Outbreak—Brazil, 2017.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Dec 15; 66(49): 1347–1351.
Satterfield-Nash, A., Kotzky, K., Allen, J., Bertolli, J., Moore, C. A., Pereira, I. O., … & Melo, F.
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Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States (Including U.S. Territories), July 2017.
MMWR Early Release, 2017 28 Jul: 66(29);781-793.
Oduyebo, T; Polen, KD; Walke, HT; et al.
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Pregnancy Outcomes After Maternal Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy — U.S. Territories, January 1, 2016–April 25, 2017.
MMWR Early Release, June 8, 2017.
Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Rice ME, Galang RR, et al.
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Serial Head and Brain Imaging of 17 Fetuses With Confirmed Zika Virus Infection in Colombia, South America.
Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jun 6. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002105. [Epub ahead of print]
Parra-Saavedra M, Reefhuis J, Piraquive JP, et al.
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Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure – U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Apr 7;66(13):366-373. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6613e1.
Reynolds MR, Jones AM, Petersen EE, et al.
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Population-based Pregnancy and Birth Defects Surveillance in the Era of Zika Virus.
Birth Defects Res. 2017 Mar 15;109(5):372-378. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1007.
Gilboa SM, Mai CT, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, et al.
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Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection – Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013-2014.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Mar 3;66(8):219-222. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6608a4.
Cragan JD, Mai CT, Petersen EE, et al.
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Characterizing the Pattern of Anomalies in Congenital Zika Syndrome for Pediatric Clinicians.
JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Mar 1;171(3):288-295. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3982.
Moore CA, Staples JE, Dobyns WB, et al.
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Birth Defects Among Fetuses and Infants of US Women with Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy.
JAMA. 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.19006.
Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, et al.
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Description of 13 Infants Born During October 2015–January 2016 with Congenital Zika Virus Infection Without Microcephaly at Birth — Brazil.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Dec 2;65(47):1343-1348. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6547e2.
van der Linden V, Pessoa A, Dobyns W, et al.
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Zika Virus Disease in Colombia – Preliminary Report.
N Engl J Med. 2016 June 15. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1604037.
Pacheco, O., Beltrán, M., Nelson, C.A., Valencia, D., et al.
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Zika Virus and Birth Defects–Reviewing the Evidence for Causality.
N Engl J Med. 2016 May 19;374(20):1981-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsr1604338.
Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR.
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All Articles

Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present.