Articles and Key Findings on Zika and Pregnancy

Key Findings

Birth defects potentially related to Zika increased in U.S. territories after widespread local transmission
Scientists found a four-fold increase in the birth defects most strongly linked to Zika during pregnancy in areas with widespread local transmission.
(Published January 23, 2020)

Zika in babies in US territories: Monitoring early health and development
Researchers found that babies exposed to Zika before birth might have long-term health problems that are not apparent at birth. Identifying health problems early can help babies and children get the care they need.
(Published August 10, 2018)

CDC reports increase in birth defects potentially related to Zika in US areas with local transmission
Researchers found an increase in the birth defects most strongly linked to Zika in areas with local Zika transmission.
(Published January 25, 2018)

Articles of Interest

Articles are listed in descending order of date published.

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Cost of Care for Zika-associated Birth Defects

Medicaid healthcare expenditures for infants with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection in North Carolina, 2011-2016. 
Birth Defects Res. 2022;114(2):80-89. Published 2022 Jan 15.
Bergman K, Forestieri NE, Di Bona VL, Grosse SD, Moore CA.
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Clinical Care Guidance for Infants Affected by Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy

Measurement of Head Circumference: Implications for Microcephaly Surveillance in Zika-Affected Areas.
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020;6(1):5. Published 2020 Dec 29. doi:10.3390/tropicalmed6010005.
Harville EW, Tong VT, Gilboa SM, et al.
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Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States (Including U.S. Territories), July 2017.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66(29):781-793. Published 2017 Jul 28. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6629e1.
Oduyebo, T; Polen, KD; Walke, HT; et al.
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Characterizing the Pattern of Anomalies in Congenital Zika Syndrome for Pediatric Clinicians.
JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Mar 1;171(3):288-295. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3982.
Moore CA, Staples JE, Dobyns WB, et al.
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Impacts of Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy in the U.S.

Prevalence of Individual Brain and Eye Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus in Pregnancy in 22 U.S. States and Territories, January 2016 to June 2017.
Birth Defects Res. 2022;114(14):805-811. Published 2022 Aug 15. doi:10.1002/bdr2.2067
Delaney A, Olson SM, Roth NM, et al.
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Discordant Clinical Outcomes in a Monozygotic Dichorionic-Diamniotic Twin Pregnancy with Probable Zika Virus Exposure. Case Report.
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020;5(4):188. Published 2020 Dec 19. doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5040188.
Mercado M, Daza M, Moore CA, et al.
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Cohort Profile: Congenital Zika virus infection and child neurodevelopmental outcomes; Zika en Embarazadas y Niños (ZEN) cohort study in Colombia.
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020060. doi:10.4178/epih.e2020060.
Gonzalez M, Tong VT, Rodriguez H, et al.
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Vital Signs: Zika-Associated Birth Defects and Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities Possibly Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection – U.S. Territories and Freely Associated States, 2018.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 August 10;67(31):858-867. doi:
Rice ME, Galang RR, Roth NM, et al.
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Population-Based Surveillance of Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection — 15 States and U.S. Territories, 2016.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(3):91-96. Published 2018 Jan 26. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6703a2.
Delaney A, Mai C, Smoots A, et al.
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Pregnancy Outcomes After Maternal Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy — U.S. Territories, January 1, 2016–April 25, 2017.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66(23):615-621. Published 2017 Jun 16. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6623e1.
Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Rice ME, Galang RR, et al.
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Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure – U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Apr 7;66(13):366-373. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6613e1.
Reynolds MR, Jones AM, Petersen EE, et al.
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Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection – Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013-2014.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Mar 3;66(8):219-222. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6608a4.
Cragan JD, Mai CT, Petersen EE, et al.
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Birth Defects Among Fetuses and Infants of US Women with Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy.
JAMA. 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.19006.
Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, et al.
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Surveillance Methods

A Preparedness Model for Mother–Baby Linked Longitudinal Surveillance for Emerging Threats.
Matern Child Health J. 2021;25(2):198-206. doi:10.1007/s10995-020-03106-y.
Woodworth KR, Reynolds MR, Burkel V, et al.
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The Zika Virus Individual Participant Data Consortium: A Global Initiative to Estimate the Effects of Exposure to Zika Virus during Pregnancy on Adverse Fetal, Infant, and Child Health Outcomes.
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020;5(4):152. Published 2020 Sep 30. doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5040152.
Zika Virus Individual Participant Data Consortium.
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Exploratory analysis of machine learning approaches for surveillance of Zika-associated birth defects.
Birth Defects Res. 2020;112(18):1450-1460. doi:10.1002/bdr2.1767.
Lusk R, Zimmerman J, VanMaldeghem K, et al.
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Breast milk transmission of flaviviruses in the context of Zika virus: A systematic review.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2018;32(4):358-368. doi:10.1111/ppe.12478.Mann TZ, Haddad LB, Williams TR, at al.
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Population-based Pregnancy and Birth Defects Surveillance in the Era of Zika Virus.
Birth Defects Res. 2017 Mar 15;109(5):372-378. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1007.
Gilboa SM, Mai CT, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, et al.
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Zika Virus and Birth Defects–Reviewing the Evidence for Causality.
N Engl J Med. 2016 May 19;374(20):1981-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsr1604338.
Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Petersen LR.
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Impacts of Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy Abroad

Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects, Costa Rica, 2016– 2018.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(2):360-371. doi:10.3201/eid2702.202047
Benavides-Lara A, la Paz Barboza-Arguello M, González-Elizondo M, et al.
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Zika Virus Disease and Pregnancy Outcomes in Colombia.
N Engl J Med. 2020;383(6):537-545. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1911023.
Ospina ML, Tong VT, Gonzalez M, et al.
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Neurodevelopmental findings in children 20-30 months of age with postnatal Zika infection at 1-12 months of age, Colombia, September-November 2017.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2021;35(1):92-97. doi:10.1111/ppe.12690.
Pacheco O, Newton SM, Daza M, et al.
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Etiology of Microcephaly and Central Nervous System Defects during the Zika Epidemic in Colombia.
J Pediatr. 2020;222:112-119.e3. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.023.
Galang RR, Avila GA, Valencia D, et al.
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Depressive Symptoms and Care Demands Among Primary Caregivers of Young Children with Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection in Brazil.
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2019 Jun;40(5):344-353. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000666.
Kotzky K, Allen JE, Robinson LR, et al.
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Health and Development at Age 19–24 Months of 19 Children Who Were Born with Microcephaly and Laboratory Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection During the 2015 Zika Virus Outbreak—Brazil, 2017.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66(49):1347-1351. Published 2017 Dec 15. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6649a2.
Satterfield-Nash A, Kotzky K, Allen J, et al.
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Serial Head and Brain Imaging of 17 Fetuses With Confirmed Zika Virus Infection in Colombia, South America.
Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jun 6. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002105.
Parra-Saavedra M, Reefhuis J, Piraquive JP, et al.
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Description of 13 Infants Born During October 2015–January 2016 with Congenital Zika Virus Infection Without Microcephaly at Birth — Brazil.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Dec 2;65(47):1343-1348. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6547e2.
van der Linden V, Pessoa A, Dobyns W, et al.
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Delivering Services to Families Affected by Zika

2018 Zika Health Brigade: Delivering Critical Health Screening in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020;5(4):168. Published 2020 Nov 9. doi:10.3390/tropicalmed5040168.
Godfred-Cato S, Fehrenbach SN, Reynolds MR, et al.
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A Framework for Coordination between Obstetric and Pediatric Providers in Public Health Emergencies: Lessons Learned from the Zika Outbreak in the United States, 2015 to 2017.
Am J Perinatol. 2020;37(10):982-990. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1712104.
Leeb RT, Cree RA, Aird L, et al.
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Readiness for an Increase in Congenital Zika Virus Infections in the United States: Geographic Distance to Pediatric Subspecialist Care.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2019;13(3):476-486. doi:10.1017/dmp.2018.77. Bertolli J, Holbrook J, Dutton ND, Jones B, Dowling NF, Peacock G.
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All Articles

Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present.