Caring for Pregnant Women
- CDC recommends that pregnant women should not travel to areas with a Zika outbreak (as indicated by red areas on the Zika map). Before travel to other areas with risk of Zika (as indicated by purple areas on the Zika map), pregnant woman should discuss their travel plans with their doctor and carefully consider the risks and possible consequences of travel to these areas. If a pregnant woman must travel to one of these areas, she should be counseled to strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites and prevent sexual transmission of Zika during and after the trip.
- Pregnant women with Zika symptoms and with possible Zika exposure should be tested for Zika virus infection. Possible Zika exposure includes living in or having recently traveled to an area with risk of Zika virus, or having had sex without a condom with a person who lives in or has traveled to an area with risk of Zika. In addition, for symptomatic pregnant women with possible exposure, testing for dengue virus is also recommended because both viruses circulate in similar areas of the world and cause similar clinical presentations.
- Pregnant women with no Zika symptoms but who have ongoing Zika exposure(e.g., live in or frequently travel to an area with risk of Zika) should be offered Zika testing.
- Testing is not recommended for pregnant women with no Zika symptoms who have recent possible exposure to Zika but no ongoing exposure. However, testing should be considered using a shared decision-making model that includes pretest counseling, individualized risk assessment, clinical judgment, patient preferences, and the jurisdiction’s recommendations.
- Testing recommendations for this group of pregnant women may differ by jurisdiction. Please contact your state, tribal, local, or territorial health department for jurisdiction specific guidance.
- Dengue and Zika Virus Diagnostic Testing for Patients with a Clinically Compatible Ill ness and Risk for Infection with Both Viruses (MMWR, June 13, 2019)
- UPDATE: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus (MMWR, July 24, 2017) – Please note that the guidance for testing asymptomatic pregnant women is current as of June 13, 2019. For symptomatic pregnant women, please see the updated guidance listed above.
Previous Guidance and Advisories
- HAN Advisory: Prolonged IgM Antibody Response in People Infected with Zika Virus: Implications for Interpreting Serologic Testing Results for Pregnant Women (May 5, 2017)
- HAN Advisory: CDC Updates Guidance for Pregnant Women and Women and Men of Reproductive Age for Zika Virus Infection Related to the Ongoing Investigation of Local Mosquito-borne Zika Virus Transmission in Miami-Dade County, Florida (October 19, 2016)
- HAN Advisory: CDC Guidance for Travel and Testing of Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age for Zika Virus Infection Related to the Investigation for Local Mosquito-borne Zika Virus Transmission in Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida (HAN, Aug. 1, 2016)
- Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure – United States, July 2016 (MMWR, Jul. 25, 2016)
- Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure – United States, 2016 (MMWR, Mar. 25, 2016)
- Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure – United States, 2016 (MMWR, Feb. 5, 2016)
- Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak—United States, 2016 (MMWR, Jan. 22, 2016)
Clinical Summary Form – This form can facilitate communication about possible Zika exposure during pregnancy from an obstetrician to a pediatrician. The Obstetrics provider can fill out the initial section about maternal Zika exposure or infection and then send the form to the pediatrician for infant follow-up.