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Gestational Diabetes, Subsequent Type 2 Diabetes, and Food Security Status: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2018


The sample began with 10,504 women aged 20 years or older who had at least 1 live birth. After the exclusion of 120 participants with unknown food security status, the sample consisted of 10,384 participants with known food security status. We then excluded 879 participants for the following reasons: 175 participants had diabetes or borderline diabetes before pregnancy, 243 participants had borderline gestational diabetes, and 461 participants had missing values on key covariates. The final study sample included 9,505 participants.


Analytic sample from 2007–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Covariates were age at first live birth, education, race and ethnicity, nativity, parity, family history of diabetes, and diabetes-related health behavior variables measured at the time of interview: alcohol use, total sugar intake 24 hours before the interview, smoking status, having rigorous-intensity activity at work or at leisure, body mass index, health insurance, and having a routine place for health care.

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