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Depressive Symptoms and Behavior-Related Risk Factors, Italian Population-Based Surveillance System, 2013


Figure. Occurrence of behavior-related risk factors in the Italian adult population (18–69 y), overall and in people with and without depressive symptoms from the Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system PASSI (Progressi delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia), 2013 (n = 39,463). Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater. Current smoking was defined as reporting having smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and being current smokers on every day or some days. No leisure-time physical activity was defined as no moderate (vacuuming, gardening, brisk walking, or bicycling) or vigorous (running, aerobics, or heavy yard work) physical activity for at least 10 minutes per week in the previous 30 days. Daily physical activity bouts of less than 10 minutes’ duration were not included in the calculation. Excessive alcohol consumption was defined for men as more than 2 alcoholic units (AUs) per day on average or 5 or more AUs during a single occasion in the previous 30 days; for women, it was defined as more than 1 AU per day on average or 4 or more AUs during a single occasion in the previous 30 days. One AU corresponds to a glass of wine (125 mL), a can of beer (330 mL), or 1 shot glass of spirits (40 mL). 

Risk Factor No Depressive Symptoms Overall Depressive Symptoms
Excessive alcohol consumption 11.4 11.5 13.8
No leisure-time physical activity 33.8 34.4 42.5
Current smoking 25.6 26.2 34.2
Obesity 9.9 10.3 16.4

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