PCD logo

Association of Adult Depression With Educational Attainment, Aspirations, and Expectations


Arrows depict possible effects of input variables on outcome variables. Demographic confounders can directly affect confounding variables from childhood, confounding variables from adolescence, educational aspirations and expectations in adolescence, educational attainment, mediating variables from adulthood, and indirectly affect depression. Similarly, childhood confounders can affect all other categories of variables, adolescence confounders can affect all education and adulthood variables, the education variables can affect adulthood mediators and depression, and the adulthood mediators can affect depression.


Theoretical framework consisting of hypothesized relationships between educational attainment, educational aspirations and expectations, depression in adulthood, and potential confounding and mediating variables.

Return to Article


The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors’ affiliated institutions.

Page last reviewed: August 27, 2020